Ceiridwen Edwards

Dr Ceiridwen Edwards

Leverhulme Research Fellow in Ancient DNA Studies

Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art
Dyson Perrins Building, South Parks Rd, Oxford, OX1 3QY

phone: 01865 285203

fax: 01865 285220

email: ceiridwen.edwards@rlaha.ox.ac.uk

Research Interests

  • Ancient DNA
  • Pre- and post-glacial mammals in the British Isles and (re)colonisation signatures
  • Phylogeography of European mammals
  • Biodiversity and climate change
  • Population genetics and conservation
  • Animal domestication

Primary Geographic Area

Europe

Current Research

Mass migration & apartheid in Anglo-Saxon Britain?: an ancient DNA re-evaluation

Recently, there has been renewed interest in migration and residence patterns, partly influenced by development of new isotopic and DNA techniques for examining mobility directly from remains of people themselves. Ancient DNA data will be combined with stable isotope analysis to study the Romano-British to Anglo-Saxon transition. Even with historical accounts detailing the arrival of the Germanic Anglo-Saxons into Lowland Britain, there are still many unanswered questions, most notably what happened to the indigenous people? – were they absorbed or displaced by this migration event? Geneticists have attempted to look at this question using modern mitochondrial and Y-chromosome DNA data, with estimates of ~25–100% contribution to the modern male English gene pool. However, this methodology is problematic, not least because, by using modern DNA, subsequent migrations will overlay any original Anglo-Saxon introgression. This becomes problematic when Danish incursions are considered – their male source populations are essentially genetically identical to that of the Anglo-Saxons, while mitochondrial patterns are similar across Europe. We also have to consider how the bottleneck caused by the Black Death in the 14th century AD has affected modern genetic affinities. The only way to begin to determine how many Anglo-Saxons migrated to Britain, or if an apartheid system was indeed in place, is to look directly at contemporaneous British populations.

Qualifications

Ph.D. Genetics (2003)
Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College Dublin
Thesis title: "Genetic variation in domesticated cattle and wild aurochsen using ancient and modern DNA"
M.Sc. in Biomolecular Archaeology (1998)
Department of Archaeology, University of Sheffield
B.Sc. (Hons.) in Genetics (1996)
Department of Biology, University of York

Selected Publications

  • Carden et al. & Edwards (2012) Phylogeographic, ancient DNA, fossil and morphometric analyses reveal ancient and modern human introductions of a large mammal: the complex case of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Ireland. Quaternary Science Reviews 42, 74-84.
  • Edwards et al. (2011) Dual origins of dairy cattle farming – evidence from a comprehensive survey of European Y-chromosomal variation. Public Library of Science One 6, e15922.
  • Edwards et al. (2011) Ancient hybridization and an Irish origin for the modern polar bear matriline. Current Biology 21, 1251-1258.
  • Edwards et al. (2010) A complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a Mesolithic wild aurochs (Bos primigenius). Public Library of Science One 5, e9255.
  • Edwards et al. (2007) Mitochondrial DNA analysis shows a Near Eastern Neolithic origin for domestic cattle and no indication of domestication of European aurochs. Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B 274, 1377-1385.

All Publications

Journal Articles & Conference Proceedings

2014

Lenstra J.A., Ajmone-Marsan P., Beja-Pereira A., Bollongino R., Bradley D.G., Colli L., De Gaetano A., Edwards C.J., Felius M., Ferretti L., Ginja C., Hristov P., Kantanen J., Liron J.P., Magee D.A., Negrini R. & Radoslavov G.A. (2014) Meta-analysis of mitochondrial DNA reveals several population bottlenecks during worldwide migrations of cattle. Diversity 6, 178-187.

2013

Edwards C.J., Ho S.Y.W., Barnett R., Coxon P., Bradley D.G., Lord T.C. & O’Connor T. (2013) Continuity of brown bear maternal lineages in northern England through the Last-glacial period. Quaternary Science Reviews, available online 5th November 2013.

2012

Bower M.A., Campana M.G., Nisbet R.E.R., Weller R., Whitten M., Edwards C.J., Stock F., Barrett E., O’Connell T.C., Hill E.W., Wilson A.M., Howe C.J., Barker G. & Binns M. (2012) Truth in the Bones: resolving the identity of two founding elite Thoroughbred racehorses, Eclipse and Bend Or. Archaeometry 54, 916-925.

Campana M.G., Lister D.L., Whitten C.M., Edwards C.J., Stock F., Barker G. & Bower M.A. (2012) Complex relationships between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA preservation in historic DNA extracts. Archaeometry 54, 193-202.

Carden R.F., McDevitt A.D., Zachos F.E., Woodman P.C., O'Toole P., Rose H., Monaghan N.T., Campana M.G., Bradley D.G. & Edwards C.J. (2012) Phylogeographic, ancient DNA, fossil and morphometric analyses reveal ancient and modern human introductions of a large mammal: the complex case of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Ireland. Quaternary Science Reviews 42, 74-84.

Edwards C.J., Soulsbury C.D., Statham M.J., Ho S.Y.W., Wall D., Dolf G., Iossa G., Baker P.J., Harris S., Sacks B.N. & Bradley D.G. (2012) Temporal genetic variation of the red fox, Vulpes vulpes, across western Europe and the British Isles. Quaternary Science Reviews 57, 95-104.

Hall S.J.G., Lenstra J.A., Deeming D.C. & European Cattle Genetic Diversity Consortium (2012) Prioritization based on neutral genetic diversity may fail to conserve important characteristics in cattle breeds. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 129, 218-225.

O’Meara D.B.*, Edwards C.J.*, Sleeman D.P., Cross T.F., Statham M.J., McDowell J.R., Dillane E., Coughlan J.P., O’Leary D., O’Reilly C., Bradley D.G. & Carlsson J. (2012) Genetic structure of Eurasian badgers Meles meles (Carnivora: Mustelidae) and the colonisation history of Ireland. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 106, 893-909 (*joint first authors).

2011

Bower M.A., Campana M.G., Whitten M., Edwards C.J., Jones H., Barrett E., Cassidy R., Nisbet R.E.R., Hill E.W., Howe C.J. & Binns M. (2011) The cosmopolitan maternal heritage of the Thoroughbred racehorse breed shows a significant contribution from British and Irish Native mares. Biology Letters 7, 316-320.

Edwards C.J., Ginja C., Kantanen J., Pérez-Pardal L., Tresset A., Stock F., European Cattle Genetic Diversity Consortium, Gama L.T., Penedo M.C.T., Bradley D.G., Lenstra J.A.& Nijman I.J. (2011) Dual origins of dairy cattle farming – evidence from a comprehensive survey of European Y-chromosomal variation. Public Library of Science One 6, e15922.

Edwards C.J., Suchard M.A., Lemey P., Welch J.J., Barnes I., Fulton T.L., Barnett R., O'Connell T.C., Coxon P., Monaghan N., Valdiosera C.E., Lorenzen E.D., Willerslev E., Baryshnikov G.F., Rambaut A., Thomas M.G., Bradley D.G. & Shapiro B. (2011) Ancient hybridization and an Irish origin for the modern polar bear matriline. Current Biology 21, 1251-1258.

2010

Campana M.G., Bower M.A., Bailey M.J., Stock F., O’Connell T.C., Edwards C.J., Checkley-Scott C., Knight B., Spencer M. & Howe C.J. (2010) A flock of sheep, goats and cattle: ancient DNA analysis reveals complexities of historical parchment manufacture. Journal of Archaeological Science 37, 1317-1325.

Campana M.G., Whitten C.M., Edwards C.J., Stock F., Murphy A.M., Binns M.M., Barker G.W.W. & Bower M.A. (2010) Accurate determination of phenotypic information from historic Thoroughbred horses by single base extension. Public Library of Science One 5, e15172.

Edwards C.J., Magee D.A., Park S.D., McGettigan P.A., Lohan A.J., Murphy A., Finlay E.K., Shapiro B., Chamberlain A.T., Richards M.B., Bradley D.G., Loftus B.J. & MacHugh D.E. (2010) A complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a Mesolithic wild aurochs (Bos primigenius). Public Library of Science One 5, e9255.

2009

Kantanen J., Edwards C.J., Bradley D.G., Viinalass H., Thessler S., Ivanova Z., Kiselyova T., Ćinkulov M., Popov R., Stojanović S., Ammosov I. & Vilkki J. (2009) Maternal and paternal genealogy of Eurasian taurine cattle (Bos taurus). Heredity 103, 404-415.

Lei C.Z., Su R., Bower M.A., Edwards C.J., Wang X.B., Weining S., Liu L., Xie W.M., Li F., Liu R.Y., Zhang Y.S., Zhang C.M. & Chen H. (2009) Multiple maternal origins of native modern and ancient horse populations in China. Animal Genetics 40, 933-944.

McDevitt A.D., Edwards C.J., O’Toole P., O’Reilly C. & Carden R.F. (2009) Genetic structure of, and hybridization between, red (Cervus elaphus) and sika (Cervus nippon) deer in Ireland. Mammalian Biology 74, 263-273.

Stock F., Edwards C.J., Bollongino R., Finlay E.K., Burger J. & Bradley D.G. (2009) Cytochrome b sequences of ancient cattle and wild ox support phylogenetic complexity in the ancient and modern bovine populations. Animal Genetics 40, 694-700.

2008

Finnegan L.A., Edwards C.J. & Rochford J.M. (2008) Mitochondrial phylogeography of the Irish red squirrel population: what can it reveal of the postglacial colonisation of Ireland? Conservation Genetics 9, 1099-1109.

Ho S.Y.W., Larson G., Edwards C.J., Heupink T.H., Lakin K.E., Holland P.W.H. & Shapiro B. (2008) Correlating Bayesian date estimates with climatic events and domestication using a bovine case study. Biology Letters 4, 370-374.

2007

Edwards C.J., Baird J.F. & MacHugh D.E. (2007) Taurine and zebu admixture in Near Eastern cattle: a comparison of mitochondrial, autosomal and Y-chromosomal data. Animal Genetics 38, 520-524.

Edwards C.J., Bollongino R., Scheu A., Chamberlain A., Tresset A., Vigne J.-D., Baird J.F., Larson G., Ho S.Y.W., Heupink T.H., Shapiro B., Freeman A.R., Thomas M.G., Arbogast R.-M., Arndt B., Bartosiewicz L., Benecke N., Budja M., Chaix L., Choyke A.M., Coqueugniot E., Döhle H.-J., Göldner H., Hartz S., Helmer D., Herzig B., Hongo H., Mashkour M., Özdogan M., Pucher E., Roth G., Schade-Lindig S., Schmölcke U., Schulting R., Stephan E., Uerpmann H.-P., Vörös I., Voytek B., Bradley D.G. & Burger J. (2007) Mitochondrial DNA analysis shows a Near Eastern Neolithic origin for domestic cattle and no indication of domestication of European aurochs. Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B 274, 1377-1385.

Larson G., Albarella U., Dobney K., Rowley-Conwy P., Schibler J., Tresset A., Vigne J.-D., Edwards C.J., Schlumbaum A., Dinu A., Balasescu A., Dolman G., Tagliacozzo A., Manaseryan N., Miracle P., Van Wijngaarden-Bakker L., Masseti M., Bradley D.G. & Cooper A. (2007) Ancient DNA, pig domestication, and the spread of the Neolithic into Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104, 15276-15281.

2006

Bollongino R.*, Edwards C.J.*, Alt K.W., Burger J. & Bradley D.G.(2006) Early history of European domestic cattle as revealed by ancient DNA. Biology Letters 2, 155-159 (*joint first authors).

McGahern A.M., Bower M.A., Edwards C.J., Brophy P.O., Sulimova G., Zacharov I., Vizuete-Forster M., Levine M., Shuicheng L., MacHugh D.E. & Hill E.W. (2006) Evidence for biogeographic patterning of mitochondrial DNA sequences in Eastern horse populations. Animal Genetics 37, 494-497.

McGahern A.M., Edwards C.J., Bower M.A., Heffernan A., Park S.D.E., Brophy P.O., Bradley D.G., MacHugh D.E. & Hill E.W. (2006) Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity in Irish extant populations and ancient horses. Animal Genetics 37, 498-502.

2005

Lister A.M., Edwards C.J., Nock D.A.W., Bunce M., van Pijlen I.A., Bradley D.G., Thomas M.G. & Barnes I. (2005) The phylogenetic position of the ‘giant deer’ Megaloceros giganteus. Nature 438, 850-853.

McEvoy B. & Edwards C.J. (2005) Reappraising the Viking image. Heredity 95, 111-112.

2004

Edwards C.J., MacHugh D.E., Dobney K.M., Martin L., Russell N., Horwitz L.K., McIntosh S.K., MacDonald K.C., Helmer D., Tresset A., Vigne J.-D. & Bradley D.G. (2004) Ancient DNA analysis of 101 cattle remains: limits and prospects. Journal of Archaeological Science 31, 695-710.

2003

Edwards C.J., Connellan J., Wallace P.F., Park S.D.E., McCormick F.M., Olsaker I., Eythórsdóttir E., MacHugh D.E., Bailey J.F. & Bradley D.G. (2003) Feasibility and utility of microsatellite markers in archaeological cattle remains from a Viking Age settlement in Dublin. Animal Genetics 34, 410-416.

2000

Edwards C.J., Dolf G. Looft C., Loftus R.T. & Bradley D.G. (2000) Relationships between the endangered Pustertaler-Sprinzen and three related European cattle breeds as analysed with 20 microsatellite loci. Animal Genetics 31, 329-332.

Edwards C.J., Gaillard C., Bradley D.G. & MacHugh D.E. (2000) Y-specific microsatellite polymorphisms in a range of bovid species. Animal Genetics 31, 127-130.

MacHugh D.E., Edwards C.J., Bailey J.F., Bancroft D.R. & Bradley D.G. (2000) The extraction and analysis of ancient DNA from bone and teeth: a survey of current methodologies. Ancient Biomolecules 3, 81-102.

Contributions to Edited Books

2013

Bower M.A., Edwards C.J. & Downes C.S. (2013) DNA analysis of the Langdale Hale/Colne Fen horses. In: Process and History: Romano-British Communities at Colne Fen, Earith. An Inland Port and Supply Farm (The Archaeology of the Lower Ouse Valley, Volume II) (eds. C. Evans, G. Appleby, S. Lucy & R. Regan). Cambridge Archaeological Unit Landscape Archives Series, Cambridge; pp. 140-143.

Schlumbaum A. & Edwards C.J. (2013) Ancient DNA research on wetland archaeological evidence. In: The Oxford Handbook of Wetland Archaeology (eds. F. Menotti & A. O'Sullivan). Oxford University Press, Oxford; pp. 569-583.

2012

Edwards C.J. (2012) Ancient DNA and analyses of mammalian remains from Ireland. In: All-Ireland Mammal Symposium 2009 (eds. F. Butler & C. Kelleher). Irish Naturalists’ Journal, Belfast; pp. 55-63.

McDevitt A.D., O’Toole P., Edwards C.J. & Carden R.F. (2012) Landscape genetics of red deer (Cervus elaphus, L. 1758) in Killarney National Park. In: All-Ireland Mammal Symposium 2009 (eds. F. Butler & C. Kelleher). Irish Naturalists’ Journal, Belfast; pp. 23-30.

2009

Edwards C.J. & Bradley D.G. (2009) Human colonisation routes and the origins of Irish mammals. In: Mesolithic Horizons: Papers presented at the Seventh International Conference on the Mesolithic in Europe, Belfast 2005 (eds. S. McCartan, R. Schulting, G. Warren & P. Woodman). Oxbow, Oxford; pp. 217-224.

Tresset A., Bollongino R., Edwards C.J., Hughes S. & Vigne J.-D. (2009) Early diffusion of domestic bovids in Europe: An indicator for human contacts, exchanges and migrations? In: Becoming Eloquent. Advances in the Emergence of Language, Human Cognition, and Modern Cultures (eds. F. d’Errico & J.-M. Hombert). John Benjamins Publishing Company, The Netherlands; pp. 69-90.

2007

Edwards C.J. & Bradley D.G. (2007) Chapter 15: Ancient DNA analysis of aurochsen. In: The Early Neolithic on the Great Hungarian Plain: Investigations of the Körös Culture Site of Ecsegfalva 23, Co. Békés (ed. A. Whittle). Institute of Archaeology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest; pp. 327-329.

Public Science Articles

2011

Edwards C.J. (2011) Domestic cattle in Europe: Local domestication of aurochs or Neolithic migration? Oxford School of Archaeology Annual Report 2010-2011, 18.

2010

Edwards C.J. (2010) Ancient DNA analysis of brown bear (Ursus arctos): temporal and spatial phylogeography in Ireland. IQUA Newsletter 44, 3.

Edwards C.J., Magee D.A., Park S.D.E., McGettigan P.A., Lohan A.J., Murphy A., Finlay E.K., Shapiro B., Chamberlain A.T., Richards M.B., Bradley D.G., Loftus B.J. & MacHugh D.E. (2010) Genomic analyses of a British Mesolithic aurochs (Bos primigenius) using conventional and second-generation DNA sequencing technologies. IQUA Newsletter 44, 5.

2005

Edwards C. (2005) Extinct giant deer traced to modern relative by ancient DNA. IQUA Newsletter 35, 3.

2004

Edwards C.J. & Bradley D.G. (2004) Current Research: Human colonisation routes and the origins of Irish mammals. IQUA Newsletter 33, 3-4.

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