Research interests

As the radiocarbon laboratory chemist, my research focuses on the development and application of radiocarbon pre-treatment methods for a range of archaeological materials, in particular bone and charcoal. I am also interested in the preservation of organic archaeological materials.

Current activities include

  • Radiocarbon dating of historical parchments: testing pre-treatment protocols and dating precision and accuracy
  • Analysis of structural and chemical change on the nanoscale within archaeological bone from Etton Causewayed Enclosure
  • Prehistoric wood sculpture from Trinidad’s Pitch Lake (PI: J Ostapkowicz, National Museums, Liverpool)
  • Use of bomb-pulse radiocarbon dating to study chronologies of modern art (with N. Eastaugh)
  • Radiocarbon dating Apachean presence in Promontory Cave, Utah (PI: J Ives, University of Alberta)



Bayliss, A., Brock, F., Farid, S., Hodder, I., Southon, J., & Taylor, R. E. 2015. Getting to the Bottom of It All: A Bayesian Approach to Dating the Start of Çatalhöyük. Journal of World Prehistory28(1), 1-26.


M. Dee, D. Wengrow, A.J. Shortland, A. Stevenson, F. Brock, C. Bronk Ramsey. 2014. Radiocarbon dating and the Naqada relative chronology. Journal of Archaeological Science 46: 319-323.

A. Quiles, H. Valladas, J.-M. Geneste, J. Clottes, D, Baffier, B. Berthier, F. Brock, C. Bronk Ramsey, E. Delque-Kolic, J.-P. Dumoulin, I. Hajdas, K. Hippe, G.W.L. Hodgins, A. Hogg, A.J.T. Jull, E. Kaltnecker, M. de Martino, C. Oberlin, F. Petchey, P. Steier, H.-A. Synal, J. van der Plicht, E.M. Wild, & A Zazzo. 2014. Second radiocarbon intercomparison program for the Chauvet-Pont D-Arc Cave, Ardèche, France.  Radiocarbon 56(2): 833-850.

S. Nalawade-Chavan, G. Zazula, F. Brock, J. Southon, R. MacPhee & P. Druckenmiller (2014). New single amino acid hydroxyproline radiocarbon dates for two problematic American Mastodon fossils from Alaska. Quaternary Geochronology  20: 23-28.

G. Schlolaut, A. Brauer, M.H. Marshall, T. Nakagawa, R.A. Staff, C. Bronk Ramsey, H.F. Lamb, C.L. Bryant, R. Naumann, P. Dulski, F. Brock, Y. Yokoyama, R. Tada, T. Haraguchi, Suigetsu 2006 project members. 2014. Event layers in the Japanese Lake Suigetsu ‘SG06’ sediment core: description, interpretation and climatic implications. Quaternary Science Reviews 83: 157-170.

C. Snoeck, F. Brock, R. Schulting. 2014. Carbon exchanges between bone apatite and fuels during cremation: impact on radiocarbon dates. Radiocarbon 56(2): 591-602.

R.A. Staff, L. Reynard, F. Brock & C. Bronk Ramsey. 2014. Wood pretreatment protocols and measurement of tree-ring standards at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU). Radiocarbon 56(2): 709-715.


F. Brock. 2013. Radiocarbon dating of historical parchments. Radiocarbon 55: 353-363.

F. Brock, V. Geoghegan, B. Thomas, K. Jurkschat & T.F.G. Higham. 2013. Analysis of bone “collagen” extraction products for radiocarbon dating. Radiocarbon 55: 445-463.

F. Brock, T. Higham, C. Bronk Ramsey. 2013. Comments on the use of Ezee-filters and ultrafilters at ORAU. Radiocarbon 55(1): 211-212.

F. Brock & M.W. Dee. 2013. Sample selection for radiocarbon dating. In: Radiocarbon and the Chronologies of Ancient Egypt (Eds. A.J. Shortland & C. Bronk Ramsey). Oxbow Books, Oxford.

F. Brock. 2013. Preparing samples for AMS radiocarbon dating. In: Radiocarbon and the Chronologies of Ancient Egypt (Eds. A.J. Shortland & C. Bronk Ramsey). Oxbow Books, Oxford.

Y. Facorellis, P. Karkanas, T. Higham, F. Brock, M. Ntinou & N. Kyparissi-Apostolika. 2013. Interpreting radiocarbon dates from the Paleolithic layers of Theopetra Cave in Thessaly, Greece. Radiocarbon 1432-1442.

C. Ottoni, L.G. Flink, A. Evin, C. Geörg, B. De Cupere, W. Van Neer, L. Bartosiewicz, A. Linderholm, R. Barnett, J. Peters, R. Decorte, M. Waelkens, N. Vanderheyden, F-X. Ricaut, C. Çakirlar, Ö. Çevik, A. R. Hoelzel, M. Mashkour, A.F.M. Karimlu, S. Sheikhi Seno, J. Daujat, F. Brock, R. Pinhasi, H. Hongon, M. Perez-Encisco, M. Rasmussen, L. Frantz, H.-J. Megens, R. Crooijmans, M. Groenen, B. Arbuckle, N. Benecje, U. Strand Vidarsdottir, J. Burger, T. Cucchi, K. Dobney, G. Larson. (2013). Pig domestication and human-mediated dispersal in Western Eurasia revealed through ancient DNA and geometric morphometrics. Molecular Biology and Evolution 30(4): 824-832.

J. Ostapkowicz, C. Bronk Ramsey, F. Brock, C. Cartwright, R. Stacey & M. Richards. 2013. Birdmen, cemis and duhos: material studies and AMS 14C dating of Pre-Hispanic Caribbean wood sculptures in the British Museum. Journal of Archaeological Science 40(12): 4675-4687

R.A. Staff, T. Nakagawa, G. Schlolaut, M.H. Marshall, A. Brauer, H.F. Lamb, C. Bronk Ramsey, C.L. Bryant, F. Brock, H. Kitagawa, J. van der Plicht, R.L. Payne, V.C. Smith, D.F. Mark, A. Macleod, S.P.E. Blockley, J-L Schwenninger, P.E. Tarasov, T. Haraguchi, K. Gotanda, H. Yonenobu, Y. Yokoyama & Suigetsu 2006 project members. (2013). The multiple chronological techniques applied to the Lake Suigetsu SG06 sediment core, central Japan. Boreas 42(2): 259-266.

R.A. Staff, G. Schlolaut, C. Bronk Ramsey, F. Brock, C.L. Bryant, H. Kitagawa, J. van der Plicht, M.H. Marshall, A. Brauer, H.F. Lamb, R.L. Payne, P.E. Tarasov, T. Haraguchi, K. Gotanda, H. Yonenobu, Y. Yokoyama, T. Nakagawa, Suigetsu 2006 Project Members. (2013). Integration of the old and new Lake Suigetsu (Japan) terrestrial radiocarbon calibration data sets. Radiocarbon 55(4): 2049-2058.

R.K. Tennant, R.T. Jones, F. Brock, C. Cook, C.S.M. Turney, J. Love, R. Lee. (2013). A new flow cytometry method enabling rapid purification of fossil pollen from terrestrial sediments for AMS radiocarbon dating. Journal of Quaternary Science 28(3): 229-236.


F. Brock, J. Ostapkowicz, C. Bronk Ramsey, A. Wiedenhoeft, C. Cartwright. 2012. Paired dating of pith and outer edge (terminus) samples from pre-Hispanic Caribbean wooden sculptures. Radiocarbon 54(3-4): 677-688.

F. Brock, R. Wood, T.F.G. Higham, P. Ditchfield, A. Bayliss, C. Bronk Ramsey. 2012. Reliability of nitrogen content (%N) and carbon:nitrogen atomic ratios (C:N) as indicators of collagen preservation suitable for radiocarbon dating. Radiocarbon 54(3-4): 879-886.

C. Bronk Ramsey, R.A. Staff, C.L. Bryant, F. Brock, H. Kitagawa, J. van der Plicht, G. Schlolaut, M.H. Marshall, A. Brauer, H.F. Lamb, R.L. Payne, P.E. Tarasov, T. Haraguchi, K. Gotsanda, H. Yonenobu, Y. Yokoyama, R. Tada & T. Nakagawa. 2012. A complete terrestrial radiocarbon record for 11.2 to 52.8 kyr BP. Science 338:370-374.

G.T. Cook, T.F.G. Higham, P. Naysmith, F. Brock, S.P.H.T Freeman, A. Bayliss. 2012. Assessment of infinite-age bones from the Upper Thames Valley, UK, as 14C background standards. Radiocarbon 54 (3-4): 845-853.

M.W. Dee, J.M. Rowland, T.F.G. Higham, A.J. Shortland, F. Brock, S.A. Harris & C. Bronk Ramsey (2012). Synchronising radiocarbon dating and the Egyptian historical chronology by improved sample selection. Antiquity 86:868-883.

R.A. Housley, C.S. Lane, V.L. Cullen, M.-J. Weber, F. Riede, C.S. Gamble, F. Brock. 2012. Icelandic volcanic ash from the Late-glacial open-air archaeological site of Ahrenshöft LA 58 D, North Germany. Journal of Archaeological Science 39:708-716.

T. Nagakawa, K. Gotanda, T. Haraguchi, T. Danhara, H. Yonenobu, A. Brauer, Y. Yokoyama, R. Tada, K. Takemura, R.A. Staff, R. Payne, C. Bronk Ramsey, C. Bryant, F. Brock, G. Schlolaut, M. Marshall, P. Tarasov, H. Lamb & Suigetsu 2006 Project Members. 2012. SG06, a fully continuous and varved sediment core from Lake Suigetsu, Japan: stratigraphy and potential for improving the radiocarbon calibration model and understanding of late Quaternary climate changes. Quaternary Science Reviews 36: 164-176.

J. Ostapkowicz, C. Bronk Ramsey, F. Brock, T. Higham, A.C.Widenhoeft, E. Ribechini, J.J. Lucejko & S.Wilson (2012). Chronologies in wood and resin: AMS 14C dating of pre-Hispanic Caribbean wood sculpture. Journal of Archaeological Science 39: 2238-2251.

R.J. Parkes, F. Brock, N. Banning, E.R.C. Hornibrook, E.G. Roussel, A.J. Weightman, J.C. Fry. 2012. Changes in methanogenic substrate utilization and communities with depth in a salt-marsh, creek sediment in southern England. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 96:170-178.

G. Schlolaut, M.H. Marshall, A. Brauer, T. Nakagawa, H.F. Lamb, R.A. Staff, C. Bronk Ramsey, C.L. Bryant, F. Brock, A. Kossler, T. Haraguchi & Suigetsu 2006 project members. 2012. An automated method for varve interpolation and its application to the Late Glacial chronology from Lake Suigetsu, Japan. Quaternary Geochronology 13: 52-69.


Arnold, L.J., Roberts, R.G., MacPhee, R.D.E., Haile, J.S., Brock, F., Moller, P., Froese, D.G., Tikhonov, A.N., Chivas, A.R., Gilbert, M.T.P. & Willerslev, E. (2011). Paper II – Dirt, dates and DNA: OSL and radiocarbon chronologies of perennially frozen sediments in Siberia, and their implications for sedimentary ancient DNA studies. Boreas, v. 40, pp. 417–445.

Bonneau, A., Brock, F., Higham, T., Pearce, D.G. & Pollard, A.M. (2011). An improved pretreatment protocol for radiocarbon dating black pigments in San rock art. Radiocarbon  53(3):419-428

Brock, F., Lee, S., Housley, R.A. & Bronk Ramsey, C. (2011). Variation in the radiocarbon age of different fractions of peat: a case study from Ahrenshöft, northern Germany. Quaternary Geochronology 6(6):550-555

Dee, M.W., Brock, F., Bowles, A. & Bronk Ramsey, C. (2011). Using a silica substrate to monitor the effectiveness of radiocarbon pretreatment. Radiocarbon 53: 705-711.

Hodgins, G., Lindroos, A., Ringbom, Å., Heinemeier, J. & Brock, F. (2011). 14C dating of Roman mortars: preliminary tests using titration with diluted hydrochloric acid. In: Ringbom Å, Hohlfelder RL, editors. Building Roma Aeterna, Current Research on Roman Mortar and Concrete, Proceedings of the conference, March 27-29, 2008. Commentationes Humanarum Litterarum 128:206-10.

Lindroos, A., Heinemeier, J., Ringbom, Å., Brock, F., Sonck-Koota, P., Pehkonen, M. & Suksi, J. (2011). Problems in radiocarbon dating of Roman pozzolana mortars. In: Ringbom Å, Hohlfelder RL, editors. Building Roma Aeterna, Current Research on Roman Mortar and Concrete, Proceedings of the conference, March 27-29, 2008. Commentationes Humanarum Litterarum 128:211-27.

Ostapkowicz, J., Bronk Ramsey, C., Wiedenhoeft, A.C., Brock, F., Higham, T. & Wilson, S.M. (2011). ‘This Relic of Antiquity’: Fifth to fifteenth century wood carvings from the southern Lesser Antilles. In: Communities in Contact: Essays in archaeology, ethnohistory & ethnography of Amerindian circum-Caribbean. Eds CL Hofman & A van Duijvenbode. Sidestone Press, Leiden.

Ostapkowicz, J., Wiedenhoeft, A., Bronk Ramsey, C., Ribechini, E., Wilson, S., Brock, F. & Higham, T. (2011). ‘Treasures…of black wood, brilliantly polished’: five examples of Taíno sculpture from the tenth-sixteenth century Caribbean. Antiquity 85:942-959.

Pollard, A.M. & Brock, F. (2011). Provenancing Parchment, Leather and Paper using Stable Isotopes. In: The Technological Study of Books and Manuscripts as Artefacts: Research questions and analytical solutions. S. Neate, D. Howell, R. Ovenden & A.M. Pollard (Eds). BAR International Series, Oxford, UK.

Rebollo, N.R., Weiner, S., Brock, F., Meignen, L., Goldberg, P., Belfer-Cohen, A., Bar-Yosef, O. & Boaretto, E. (2011). New radiocarbon dating of the transition from the Middle to the Upper Paleolithic in Kebara Cave, Israel. Journal of Archaeological Science v. 38, pp. 2424-2433.

Ringbom, Å., Heinemeier, J., Lindroos, A. & Brock, F. (2011). Mortar dating and Roman pozzolana, results and interpretations. In: Ringbom Å, Hohlfelder RL, editors. Building Roma Aeterna, Current Research on Roman Mortar and Concrete, Proceedings of the conference, March 27-29, 2008. Commentationes Humanarum Litterarum 128:184-205.

Staff , R.A., Bronk Ramsey, C., Bryant, C.L., Brock, F., Payne, R.L., Schlolaut, G., Marshall, M.H., Brauer, A., Lamb, H.F., Parasov, P., Yokoyama, Y., Haraguchi, T., Gotanda, K., Yonenobu, H., Nakagawa, T. & Suigetsu 2006 Project Members. (2011). New 14C determinations from Lake Suigetsu, Japan: 12,000 to 0 cal BP. Radiocarbon 53(3):511-528.


Ascough, P.L., Bird, M.I., Meredith, W., Wood, R.E., Snape, C.E., Brock, F., Higham, T.F.G., Large, D. & Apperley, D.C. (2010). Hydropyrolysis: Implications for radiocarbon pretreatment and characterization of Black Carbon Radiocarbon v. 52 (2-3) pp. 1336-1350.

Brock, F., Froese, D.G. & Roberts, R.G.(2010). Low temperature (LT) combustion of sediments does not provide accurate radiocarbon dates for site chronology Quaternary Geochronology, v. 5 pp. 625-630.

Brock, F., Higham, T.F.G., Ditchfield, P. & Bronk Ramsey, C. (2010). Current pretreatment methods for AMS radiocarbon dating at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU). Radiocarbon v. 52 (1) pp. 103-112.

Brock, F., Higham, T.F.G. & Bronk Ramsey, C. (2010). Pre-screening techniques for identification of samples suitable for radiocarbon dating of poorly preserved bones. Journal of Archaeological Science v. 37 pp. 855-865.

Bronk Ramsey, C., Dee, M.W., Rowland, J.M., Higham, T.F.G., Harris, S.A., Brock, F., Quiles, A., Wild, E.M., Marcus, E.M. & Shortland, A.J. (2010). Radiocarbon-based chronology for Dynastic Egypt. Science v. 328 pp. 1554-1557.

Dee, M.W., Brock, F., Harris, S.A., Bronk Ramsey, C., Shortland, A.J., Higham, T.F.G. & Rowland, J.M. (2010). Investigating the likelihood of a reservoir offset in the radiocarbon record for Ancient Egypt. Journal of Archaeological Science v. 37 pp. 687-693.


Ascough, P.L., Bird, M.I., Brock, F., Higham, T.F.G., Meredith, W., Snape, C.E. & Vane, C.E. (2009). Hydropyrolysis as a new tool for radiocarbon pre-treatment and the quantification of black carbon.  Quaternary Geochronology v. 4(2) pp. 140-147.

Brock, F. & Higham, T.F.G. (2009). AMS Radiocarbon dating of Paleolithic-aged charcoal from Europe and the Mediterranean Rim using ABOx-SC. Radiocarbon v. 51(2) pp. 839-846

Broglio, A., De Stefani, M., Gurioli, F., Pallecchi, P., Giachi, G., Higham, T. & Brock, F. 2009, "The decoration of Fumane Cave in the picture of the Aurignacian art", Anthropologie, vol. 113, no. 5, pp. 753-761.

Higham, T.F.G., Brock, F., Peresani, M., Broglio, A., Wood, R. & Douka, K. (2009) Problems with radiocarbon dating the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in Italy. Quaternary Science Reviews v. 28 pp. 1257-1267.

Higham, T.F.G., Barton, H., Turney, C.S.M., Barker, G., Bronk Ramsey C. & Brock, F. (2009) Radiocarbon dating of charcoal from tropical sequences: Results from the Niah Great Cave, Sarawak and their broader implication. Journal of Quaternary Science v. 24(2) pp 189-197.

Stynder, D.D., Brock, F., Sealy, J.C., Wurz, S., Morris, A.G. & Volman, T.P. (2009) A mid-Holocene AMS 14C date for the presumed upper Pleistocene human skeleton from Peers Cave, South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution v. 56 pp. 431-434.

Zazula, G., MacKay, G., Andrews, T.D., Shapiro, B., Letts, B. & Brock, F. (2009). A late Pleistocene steppe bison (Bison priscus) partial carcass from Tsiigehtchic, Northwest Territories, Canada. Quaternary Science Reviews v. 28 pp. 2734-2742.

Zazula, G.D., Harrington, C.R., Telka, A.M. & Brock, F. (2009). Radiocarbon dates reveal that Lupinus arcticus plants were grown from modern not Pleistocene seeds. New Phytologist v. 182 pp. 788-792


Arnold, L.J., Roberts, R.G., MacPhee, R.D.E., Willerslev, E., Tikhonov, A.N. & Brock, F. (2008). Optical dating of perennially frozen deposits associated with preserved ancient plant and animal DNA in north-central Siberia. Quaternary Geochronology v. 3 (1-2) pp. 114-136

DeMuro, M., Roberts, R.G., Froese, D.G., Arnold, L.J., Brock, F. & Bronk Ramsey, C. (2008). Optically stimulated luminescence dating of single and multiple grains of quartz from perennially-frozen loess in western Yukon Territory, Canada: Comparison with radiocarbon chronologies for the late Pleistocene Dawson tephra. Quaternary Geochronology v.3 (4) pp. 346-364.

Wild, E.M., Neugebauer-Maresch, C., Einwögerer, T., Stadler, P., Steier, P. & Brock, F. (2008). 14C-Dating of the Upper Paleolithic Site at Krems-Hundssteig in Lower Austria. Radiocarbon v. 50 (1) pp.1-10.


Brock, F., Ramsey, C.B. & Higham, T.F.G. (2007). Quality assurance of ultrafiltered bone dating. Radiocarbon v. 49 (2) pp. 187-192

Brock, F., Higham, T. & Ramsey, C.B. (2007). Radiocarbon dating bone samples recovered from gravel sites. English Heritage Research Department Report Series no. 30/2007.

School of Archaeology > People > Fiona Brock