Martin Aitken

27-09-2017 by Administrator

The School of Archaeology regrets to announce that Martin Aitken has died in his home in France, aged 95. He was a physicist who dedicated his time to research in the scientific aspects of archaeology.  Much of his career (from 1957 – 1989) was spent in the Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art at Oxford, where he was Director.  He is widely regarded as a founding father of Archaeometry, and was a passionate proponent of archaeological science as an integral component of the wider scientific endeavour. He laid the foundations for several important scientific methods, most notably archaeomagnetic prospection and thermoluminesce dating. The following obituary from the journal Archaeometry is reproduced with permissio  

Martin AitkenFRS, FSA (11 March 1922– 15 June 2017)

Martin Jim Aitken was born on March 11 1922 and educated at Stamford School, Lincolnshire. He went up to Wadham College, Oxford, to read Physics, but his studies were interrupted by the Second World War, in which he served as a Technical Radar Officer in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and Burma (Myanmar). After completion of his Oxford doctorate he undertook research in nuclear physics using a small electron synchrotron.

In 1957 he joined the University’s newly formed Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art (RLAHA) as its second Deputy Director, founded two years earlier by Teddy Hall with the support of archaeologist Christopher Hawkes and the physicist Lord Cherwell (the first Deputy Director was Dr Stuart Young). He began to apply magnetic methods to both the dating and location of archaeological kilns and hearths. In 1958, at the invitation of the archaeologist Graham Webster, he undertook the first archaeological proton magnetometer survey, on the Roman city of Durobrivae, near Water Newton, Cambridgeshire, detecting a kiln amongst other features. His instrument was a version of the device that had been tested by the Army for the detection of plastic mines. 

Also in 1958, the Oxford laboratory published the first volume of the journal Archaeometry, originally subtitled the ‘Bulletin of the Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, Oxford University’, but including international contributions from volume 3 onwards. He was an editor until 1989. His first book, Physics and Archaeology, was published in 1961. In 1962, Martin organized a day meeting for archaeologists who had purchased proton magnetometers, which became an annual meeting. The scope of the meetings broadened in 1969 to become the “Symposium on Archaeometry and Archaeological Prospection”, held in Oxford until 1975. In 1976, with the meeting in Edinburgh, it became the International Symposium on Archaeometry and Archaeological Prospection”, and in 1980 (Paris) the “International Symposium on Archaeometry”, which continues to this day as a bi-annual international conference.

As well as proton magnetometers, he also developed the use of fluxgate magnetic gradiometers for the detection of buried remains, and was involved (with Derek Walton) in the development of the first SQUID cryogenic magnetometer (a device capable of measuring extremely subtle magnetic fields) to be used in Britain. From the 1960s he was involved in the development of thermoluminescence dating (TL), to date ceramic materials such as pottery, brick and tiles. He further developed the method by using blue/green light or infrared radiation instead of heat. This optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating has become one of the most powerful methods for the dating of sediments in both archaeological and environmental contexts.

He published a book on thermoluminescence dating in 1985, and an introduction to optical dating in 1998. His best-known book, Science-based Dating in Archaeology (1990), became the standard undergraduate text on the subject.

He became a Fellow of Linacre College, Oxford, in 1965 and Professor of Archaeometry in 1985. He continued his interests in archaeomagnetism and luminescence dating up until his retirement in 1989, publishing, in addition to his books, more than 150 scientific papers. He won the Gemant Award from the American Institute of Physics, and the Pomerance Award for Scientific Contributions to Archaeology of the Archaeological Institute of America. In recognition of his scientific achievements, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1983- a tribute not only to his outstanding ability as a scientist who chose to work in archaeology, but also a recognition of the fact that science in archaeology had come of age. He has almost single-handedly promoted the view that archaeology is part of a wider scientific endeavour, perhaps best encapsulated in his contribution to the 1981 Smithsonian round table discussion on "Future Directions in Archaeometry", which he entitled "Archaeometry Does Not Only Serve Archaeology". He was truly one of the 'founding fathers' of archaeometry. He married Joan Killick, with whom he had four daughters and a son. In retirement he and his wife moved to a house near Clermont Ferrand in France.

An account of his contribution to the subject was published in 1990, following his retirement from RLAHA in 1989 (Sayre, E.V., and Tite, M.S., 1990, On the retirement of Teddy Hall and Martin Aitken, Archaeometry 32, 3–6). 

M. J. Aitken: Bibliography

Stokes, S., Ingram, S., Aitken, M. J., Sirocko, F., Anderson, R., and Leuschner, D., 2003, Alternative chronologies for Late Quaternary (Last Interglacial-Holocene) deep sea sediments via optical dating of silt-sized quartz, Quaternary Science Reviews, 22, 925-941.

Aitken, M. J., 1999, Archaeological dating using physical phenomena, Reports on Progress in Physics, 62, 1333-1376.

Aitken, M. J., 1998, An introduction to optical dating: the dating of Quaternary sediments by the use of photon-stimulated luminescence, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Taylor, R. E., and Aitken, M. J. (eds.), 1997, Chronometric dating in archaeology, New York, Plenum Press.

Aitken, M. J., 1994, Optical dating - a nonspecialist review, Quaternary Science Reviews, 13, 503-508.

Aitken, M. J., Stringer, C. B., and Mellars, P. A., (eds.), 1993, The origin of modern humans and the impact of chronometric dating; a discussion, Princeton, Princeton University Press.

Mellars, P. A., Aitken, M. J., and Stringer, C. B., 1992, Outlining the problem. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences, 337, 127-130.

Aitken, M. J., and Valladas, H., 1992, Luminescence dating relevant to human origins, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences, 337, 139-144.

Aitken, M. J., 1992, Optical dating, Quaternary Science Reviews, 11, 127-131.

Aitken, M. J., and Xie, J., 1992, Optical dating using infrared diodes - young samples, Quaternary Science Reviews, 11, 147-152.

Aitken, M. J., Pesonen, L. J., and Leino, M., 1991, The Thellier paleointensity technique - minisamples versus standard size, Journal of Geomagnetism and Geoelectricity, 43, 325-331.

Smith, B. W., Rhodes, E. J., Stokes, S., Spooner, N. A., and Aitken, M. J., 1991, Corrigendum to ‘Optical dating of sediments - initial quartz results from Oxford’, Archaeometry, 33, 135.

Aitken, M. J., 1990, Science-based dating in archaeology, Harlow, Longman.

Smith, B. W., Rhodes, E. J., Stokes, S., Spooner, N. A., and Aitken, M. J., 1990, Optical dating of sediments - initial quartz results from Oxford, Archaeometry, 32, 19-31.

Aitken, M. J., 1990, TLD methods in archaeometry, geology and sediment studies, Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 34, 55-60.

Spooner, N. A., Aitken, M. J., Smith, B. W., Franks, M., and Mcelroy, C., 1990, Archaeological dating by infrared-stimulated luminescence using a diode-array, Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 34, 83-86.

Aitken, M. J.,1989, Luminescence dating - a guide for non-specialists, Archaeometry, 31, 147-159.

Aitken, M. J., Allsop, A. L., Bussell, G. D., and Winter, M., 1989, Geomagnetic intensity variation during the last 4000 years, Physics of the earth and Planetary Interiors, 56, 49-58.

Aitken, M. J., Allsop, A. L., Bussell, G. D., Liritzis, Y. and Winter, M. B., 1989, Geomagnetic intensity measurements using bricks from Greek churches of the 1st and 2nd millennia AD, Archaeometry, 31, 77-87.

Maniatis, Y., Michael, C., Haikalis, D., Papamarinopoulos, S., Stoneham, D., Bussell, G. D., and Aitken, M. J., 1988, Inauthentication of a Corinthian wine vessel using archeomagnetism and thermoluminescence (abstract), Geophysical Journal, 92, 550.

Aitken, M. J., Michael, H. N., Betancourt, P. P., and Warren, P. M., 1988, The Thera eruption - continuing discussion of the dating, Archaeometry, 30, 165-182.

Aitken, M. J., Allsop, A. L., Bussell, G. D., and Winter, M., 1988, Determination of the intensity of the Earths magnetic-field during archaeological times - reliability of the Thellier technique, Reviews of Geophysics, 26, 3-12.

Aitken, M. J., Allsop, A. L., Bussell, G. D., and Winter, M., 1988, The lack of reproducibility in experimentally determined intensities of the earths magnetic-field – comments, Reviews of Geophysics, 26, 23-25.

Murray, A. S., and Aitken, M. J., 1988, Analysis of low-level natural radioactivity in small mineral samples for use in thermo-luminescence dating, using high-resolution gamma-spectrometry, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 39, 145-158.

Aitken, M. J., and Smith, B. W., 1988, Optical dating - recuperation after bleaching, Quaternary Science Reviews, 7, 387-393.

Aitken, M. J., Allsop, A. L., Bussell, G. D., and Winter, M., 1987, Archaeomagnetic intensity determination - a 19th-century pottery kiln near Jordan, Ontario, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 24, 2392-2395.

Wei, Q. Y., Zhang, W. X., Li, D. J., Aitken, M. J., Bussell, G. D., and Winter, M.,1987, Geomagnetic intensity as evaluated from ancient Chinese pottery, Nature, 328, 330-333.

Aitken, M. J., Allsop, A. L., Spencer, G. D., and Winter, M., 1987, Archaeomagnetic intensity determination - comparison with observatory-based data (abstract), Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 89, 476.

Aitken, M. J., 1986, Proton magnetometer prospection: reminiscences of the first year, Prospezioni Archeologiche, 10, 15-17.

Nambi, K. S. V., and Aitken, M. J., 1986, Annual dose conversion factors for TL-and-ESR dating, Archaeometry, 28, 202-205.

Aitken, M. J., Allsop, A. L., Bussell, G. D., and Winter, M., 1986, Paleointensity determination using the Thellier technique - reliability criteria, Journal of Geomagnetism and Geoelectricity, 38, 1353-1363.

Smith, B. W., Aitken, M. J., Rhodes, E. J., Robinson, P. D., and Geldard, D. M., 1986, Optical dating - methodological aspects, Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 17, 229-233.

Aitken, M. J., 1985, Thermoluminescence dating, London, Academic Press.

Aitken, M. J., Allsop, A. L., Bussell, G. D., and Winter, M. B., 1985, Archaeomagnetic measurement of geomagnetic intensity in England during the last 600 years (abstract), Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 81, 322.

Aitken, M. J., Allsop, A. L., Bussell, G. D., and Winter, M. B., 1985, Greek archaeomagnitudes, Nature, 314, 753.

Aitken, M. J., 1985, Thermo-luminescence dating - past progress and future-trends, Nuclear Tracks and Radiation Measurements, 10, 3-6.

Watson, I. A., and Aitken, M. J., 1985, Firing temperature analysis using the 110-degrees-c TL peak of quartz, Nuclear Tracks and Radiation Measurements, 10, 517-520.

Aitken, M. J., Clark, P. A., Gaffney, C. F., and Lovborg, L., 1985, Beta-gradients and gamma-gradients, Nuclear Tracks and Radiation Measurements, 10, 647-653.

Green, H. S., with contributions by M. J. Aitken, 1984, Pontnewydd Cave: a lower palaeolithic hominid site in Wales, Cardiff, National Museum of Wales.

Debenham, N. C., and Aitken, M. J., 1984, Thermo-luminescence dating of stalagmitic calcite, Archaeometry, 26, 155-170.

Allsop, A. L., Griffiths, V., and Aitken, M. J., 1984 Paleointensity by the Thellier technique with alternating-field cleaning incorporated (abstract), Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 77, 307.

Aitken, M. J., Allsop, A. L., Bussell, G. D., and Winter, M. B., 1984, Geomagnetic intensity in Egypt and Western Asia during the 2nd millennium BC, Nature, 310, 305-306.

Aitken, M. J., 1984, How to use gamma-thermoluminescence, Recherche, 15, 563.

AItken, M. J., Allsop, A. L., Bussell, G. D., Liritzis, Y., and Papamarinopoulos, S., 1983, Geomagnetic intensity variations in Greece during the past 2 millenia (abstract), Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 73, 307.

Alcock, P. A., and Aitken, M. J., 1983, Cooling rate effects in archaeomagnetic intensity determinations (abstract), Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 73, 307.

Aitken, M. J., 1982, Archaeometry does not only serve archaeology, in Future Directions in Archaeometry (ed. J. S. Olin), Smithsonian Institution, p. 61.

Aitken, M. J., Alcock, P. A., Bussell, G. D., Jones, V., Shaw, C. J., Wei, Q. Y., and Zhang, W. S., 1982, Archaeomagnetic intensity results for the Near-East and for China (abstract), Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 69, 292.

Aitken, M. J., Alcock, P. A., Bussell, G. D., and Shaw C. J., 1981, Archaeomagnetic determination of the past geomagnetic intensity using ancient ceramics: allowance for anisotropy, Archaeometry, 23, 53-64.

Aitken, M. J., Bussell, G., Jones, R., and Shaw, C. J., 1981, Geomagnetic-field intensity variations in the Eastern Mediterranean within the period 5000 to 2000 BP, Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 65, 267-267.

Bakas, Th., Gangas, N.-H., Sigalas, I., and Aitken, M. J., 1980, Mössbauer study of Glozel tablet 198 BL, Archaeometry, 22, 69-80.

Aitken, M. J., Bussell, G. D., Maniatis, Y., Gangas, N., and Moukarika, A., 1980, Magnetic-anisotropy of pottery - correlation with electron-microscope indications (abstract), Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 61, 209.

Alcock, P., Aitken, M. J., and Shaw, C. J., 1980, Magnetic-anisotropy in pottery - effect of demagnetization (abstract), Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 61, 209.

Aitken, M. J., and Huxtable, J., 1980, Accuracy of thermo-luminescence dates, Nature, 286, 911.

Fox, J. M. W., and Aitken, M. J., 1980, Cooling-rate dependence of thermoremanent magnetization, Nature, 283, 462-463.

Bailiff, I. K., and Aitken, M. J., 1980, Use of thermo-luminescence dosimetry for evaluation of internal beta dose-rate in archaeological dating, Nuclear Instruments & Methods, 173, 423-429.

Fox, J. M. W., and Aitken, M. J., 1979, Effect on TRM of rate of cooling and its relevance to the determination of the ancient field magnitude (abstract), Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 57, 268.

Aitken, M. J., 1979, TRM characteristics baked clay relevant to archeomagnetic intensity determinations (abstract), Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 57, 269.

Rogers, J., Fox, J. M. W., and Aitken, M. J., 1979, Magnetic anisotropy in ancient-pottery, Nature, 277, 644-646.

Fox, J. M. W., and Aitken, M. J., 1978, Self-demagnetizing effects in archeomagnetic intensity determinations (abstract), Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 53, 153.

Fox, J. M. W., and Aitken, M. J., 1978, Archaeomagnitudes from British pottery, Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 53, 153-154.

Huxtable, J., Aitken, M. J., and Bonhommet, N., 1978, Thermoluminescence dating of sediment baked by lava flows of Chaîne des Puys, Nature, 275, 207-209.

Aitken, M. J., 1978, Archeological involvements of physics, Physics Reports-Review Section of Physics Letters, 40, 278-351.

Aitken, M. J., and Wintle, A. G., 1977, Thermoluminescence dating of calcite and burnt flint - age relation for slices, Archaeometry, 19, 100-105.

Wintle, A. G., and Aitken, M. J., 1977, Thermoluminescence dating of burnt flint - application to a lower paleolithic site, Terra-Amata, Archaeometry, 19, 111-130.

Walton, D., and Aitken, M. J., 1977, Archeomagnetic intensity measurements using a squid magnetometer (abstract), Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 49, 281.

Wintle, A. G., and Aitken, M. J., 1977, Absorbed dose from a beta source as shown by thermoluminescence dosimetry, International Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 28, 625-627.

Aitken, M. J., 1977, Thermoluminescence and the archaeologist, Antiquity, 51, 11-19.

Bailiff, I. K., Bowman, S. G. E., Mobbs, S. F., and Aitken, M. J., 1977, Phototransfer technique and its use in thermoluminescence dating, Journal of Electrostatics, 3, 269-280.

Bailiff, I. K., Morris, D. A., and Aitken, M. J., 1977, Rapid-scanning interference spectrometer - application to low-level thermoluminescence emission, Journal of Physics E-Scientific Instruments, 10, 1156-1160.

Huxtable, J., and Aitken, M. J., 1977, Thermoluminescent dating of Lake Mungo geomagnetic polarity excursion, Nature, 265, 40-41.

Huxtable, J., Aitken, M. J., Hedges, J. W., and Renfrew, A. C., 1976, Dating a settlement pattern by thermoluminescence - burnt mounds of Orkney, Archaeometry, 18, 5-17.

Aitken, M. J., 1976, Thermoluminescent age evaluation and assessment of error limits - revised system, Archaeometry, 18, 233-238.

Aitken, M. J., and Bowman, S. G. E., 1975, Thermoluminescent dating - assessment of alpha particle contribution, Archaeometry, 17, 132-138.

Desai, V. S., and Aitken, M. J., 1974, Radon escape from pottery - effect of wetness, Archaeometry, 16, 95-97.

Thompson, R., Aitken, M. J., Gibbard, P. L., and Wymer, J. J., 1974, Palaeomagnetic study of Hoxnian lacustrine sediments, Archaeometry, 16, 233-237.

Fleming, S. J., and Aitken, M. J., 1974, Radiation dosage associated with ball lightning, Nature, 252, 220-221.

Aitken, M. J., 1974, Calibration of radiocarbon time scale (reply), Nature, 249, 94.

Aitken, M. J., Moorey, P. R. S., and Ucko, P. J., 1972, The authenticity of vessels and figurines in the Haçilar style: correction, Archaeometry, 14, 147.

Aitken, M. J., and Alldred, J. C., 1972, The assessment of error limits in thermoluminescent dating, Archaeometry, 14, 257-267.

Huxtable, J., Aitken, M. J., and Weber, J. C., 1972, Thermoluminescent dating of baked clay balls of Poverty Point culture, Archaeometry, 14, 269-275.

Aitken, M.J., and Hawley, H. N., 1971, Archaeomagnetism - Evidence for magnetic refraction in kiln structures, Archaeometry, 13, 83-85.

Aitken, M. J., 1971, Authenticity of vessels and figurines in Haçilar style. Part II. Thermoluminescence tests, Archaeometry, 13, 93- 110.

Aitken, M. J., Moorey, P. R. S., and Ucko, P. J., 1971, The authenticity of vessels and figurines in the Haçilar style, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Aitken, M. J., 1970, Publication of Archaeometry, Antiquity, 44, 60.

Aitken, M. J., 1970, Dating by archaeomagnetic and thermoluminescent methods, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A-Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 269, 77-88.

Aitken, M. J., 1970, Physics applied to archaeology. 1. Dating, Reports on Progress in Physics, 33, 941-1000.

Aitken, M. J., 1969, Thermoluminescent dosimetry of environmental radiation on archaeological sites, Archaeometry, 11, 109-114.

Aitken, M. J., 1969, Magnetic field work, Archaeometry, 11, 179-180.

Aitken, M. J., Zimmerman, D. W., and Fleming, S. J., 1968, Thermoluminescent dating of ancient pottery, Nature, 219, 442-445.

Aitken, M. J., 1968, Thermoluminescent dating in archaeology: introductory review, in Thermoluminescence of Geological Material (ed. D. J. McDougall), Academic Press, London, pp 369-378.

Aitken, M. J., 1968, Evaluation of effective radioactive content by means of thermoluminescent dosimetry, in Thermoluminescence of Geological Material (ed. D. J. McDougall), Academic Press, London, pp 463-470.

Aitken, M. J., and Thompson, J., 1968, Determination of heat penetration in archaeological remains, in Thermoluminescence of Geological Material (ed. D. J. McDougall), Academic Press, London, pp 413-418.

Aitken, M. J., Fleming, S. J., Doell, R. R., and Tangey, J. C., 1968, Thermoluminescent studies of lavas from Mt. Etna and other historic flows: Preliminary results, in Thermoluminescence of Geological Material (ed. D. J. McDougall), Academic Press, London, pp 359-366.

Aitken, M. J., Fleming, S. J., Reid, J., and Tite, M. S., 1968, Elimination of spurious thermoluminescence, in Thermoluminescence of Geological Material (ed. D. J. McDougall), Academic Press, London, pp 133-142.

Aitken, M. J., Alldred, J. C., and Thompson, J., 1968, A photon-ratemeter system for low-level thermoluminescence measurements, in Second International Conference on Luminescence Dosimetry (eds. K. Becker, E. M. Robinson and J. A. Auxier,) U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, pp. 248-265.

Aitken, M. J., 1968, Low-level environmental radiation measurements using natural calcium fluoride, in Second International Conference on Luminescence Dosimetry (eds. K. Becker, E. M. Robinson and J. A. Auxier,) U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, pp. 281-290.

Aitken, M. J., Thompson, J., and Fleming, S. J., 1968, Predose effects in thermoluminescence and in luminescence during irradiation, in Second International Conference on Luminescence Dosimetry (eds. K. Becker, E. M. Robinson and J. A. Auxier,) U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, pp. 364-388.

Aitken, M. J., Reid, J., Tite, M. S., and Fleming, S. J., 1967, Quenching of spurious thermoluminescence by nitrogen, in Luminescence Dosimetry (ed. F. H. Attix), U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, pp 236-243.

Aitken, M. J., Tite, M. S., and Fleming, S. J., 1967, Thermoluminescent response to heavily ionising radiations, in Luminescence Dosimetry (ed. F. H. Attix), U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, pp 490-501.

Aitken, M. J., Fleming, S. J., and Zimmerman, D. W., 1967, Thermoluminescent dating of ceramics, Radioactive Dating and Methods of Low-level Counting, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna,523-530.

Aitken, M. J., 1967, Magnetic field work, Archaeometry, 10, 136.

Aitken, M. J., and Hawley, H. N., 1967, Archaeomagnetic measurements in Britain - IV, Archaeometry, 10, 129-135.

Colani, C., and Aitken, M. J., 1966, New type of locating device. II. Field trials, Archaeometry, 9, 9-19.

Aitken, M. J., and Hawley, H. N., 1966, Magnetic dating. III. Further archaeomagnetic measurements in Britain, Archaeometry, 9, 187-197.

Colani, C., and Aitken, M. J., 1966, Utilization of magnetic viscosity effects in soils for archaeological prospection, Nature, 212, 1446-1447.

Aitken, M. J., 1966, Magnetic field work, Archaeometry, 9, 200-201.

Aitken, M. J., 1965, Archaeology, Physics, in Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Physics, ed. J. Thewlis, Pergamon Press, 10, 7-11.

Aitken, M. J., 1965, Proton magnetometer, in Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Physics, ed. J. Thewlis, Pergamon Press, 10, 247-249.

Aitken, M. J., 1965, Palaeomagnetic methods in archaeology, in International Dictionary of Geophysics, ed. S. K. Runcorn, Pergamon Press, 818-824.

Aitken, M. J., 1965, A aplicação de métodos da Fisica à Arqueologia, Trabalhos de Antropologia e Etnologia, 19, 285-297.

Aitken, M. J., 1965, Thermoluminescence, Science Journal, June, 32-38.

Aitken, M. J., and Weaver, G. H., 1965, Recent archaeomagnetic results in England, Journal of Geomagnetism and Geoelectricity, 17, 391-394.

Aitken, M. J., 1965, Magnetic field work, Archaeometry, 8, 115.

Aitken, M. J., 1964, A “big-sample” spinner magnetometer, in Methods in Palaeo-magnetism, (Ed. Collinson), Elsevier Publishing Co., Section 22.

Aitken, M. J., and Alldred, J. C., 1964, A simulator-trainer for magnetic prospection, Archaeometry, 7, 28-35.

Aitken, M. J., 1964, Archaeomagnetic results: some geophysical implications, Archaeometry, 7, 43-46.

Aitken, M. J., Reid, J., and Tite, M. S., 1964, Thermoluminescent dating of ancient ceramics, Nature, 201, 1032-1033.

Aitken, M. J., Harold, M. R, and Weaver, G. H., 1964, Some archaeomagnetic evidence concerning secular variation in Britain, Nature, 201, 659-660.

Aitken, M. J., 1964, Remanent magnetism in ancient ceramics and pottery kilns, Proceedings of the British Ceramic Society, No. 2, December, 143-149.

Aitken, M. J., 1964, Magnetic field work, Archaeometry, 7, 114.

Aitken, M. J., 1964, The proton magnetometer and its relationship to aerial photography, Colloque International d’Archeologie Aerienne, Paris, 255-258.

Aitken, M. J., 1963, Magnetic location, in Science and Archaeology (eds. D. Brothwell and E. Higgs), Thames and Hudson, pp. 681-694 (2nd edn. 1974).

Aitken, M. J., Tite, M. S., and Reid, J., 1963, Thermoluminescent dating: progress report, Archaeometry, 6, 65-75.

Aitken, M. J., Hawley, H.N., and Weaver, G. H., 1963, Magnetic dating: further archaeomagnetic measurements in Britain, Archaeometry, 6, 76-80.

Aitken, M. J., 1963, Magnetic field work, Archaeometry, 6, 93.

Aitken, M. J., and Weaver, G. H., 1962, Magnetic dating: some archaeomagnetic measurements in Britain, Archaeometry, 5, 4-24.

Aitken, M. J., and Tite, M. S., 1962, Proton magnetometer surveying on some British hill-forts, Archaeometry, 5, 126-134.

Aitken, M. J., and Tite, M. S., 1962, A gradient magnetometer, using proton free-precession, Journal of Scientific Instruments, 39, 625-629.

Tite, M. S., Aitken, M. J., and Waine, J., 1962, Thermoluminescent dating at Oxford, Atti del VI Congresso Internazionale delle Scienze Preistoriche e Protostoriche I, Roma, xx-yy.

Aitken, M. J., 1962, Archaeological applications of geophysical methods. Atti del VI Congresso Internazionale delle Scienze Preistoriche e Protostoriche I, Roma, xx-yy.

Aitken, M. J., 1962, The proton magnetometer - principles of operation and its use in archaeology, Convegno Promosso dal Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche. May 1962, Venice.

Emeleus, V. M., Aitken, M. J., Hall, E. T., and Kraay, C. M., 1962, Neutron activation analysis of ancient silver coins. International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna. 1962.

Aitken, M. J., 1962, Physics applied to archaeology, Part II, Contemporary Physics, 3, 333-352.

Aitken, M. J., 1962, Physics applied to archaeology, Part I, Contemporary Physics, 3, 161-176.

Aitken, M. J., 1962, Magnetic field work, Archaeometry, 5, 155.

Aitken, M. J., 1962, Physical methods of archaeological research, Research Applied in Industry, XV, 145-151.

Aitken, M. J., 1961, Physics and archæology, New York, Interscience Publishers (2nd edn. 1974, Oxford, Clarendon Press).

Aitken, M. J., 1961, The firing of a pottery kiln of a Romano-British type at Boston, Lincs. (P. Mayes). Appendix IV. Measurement of the magnetic anomaly, Archaeometry, 4, 28-30.

Aitken, M. J., 1961, Magnetic location in Britain, Archaeometry, 4, 83-84.

Aitken, M. J., 1961, Magnetic field work, Archaeometry, 4, 91.

Aitken, M. J., 1961, New research tools for the archaeologist, Discovery, XXII, 6, 246-254.

Stead, I. M., 1961, A distinctive form of La Tène barrow in eastern Yorkshire and on the Continent. Appendix: Aitken, M. J., The magnetic survey. Antiquaries Journal, XLI, 44-62.

Aitken, M. J., 1960, Magnetic prospecting - the proton gradiometer, Archaeometry, 3, 38-40.

Aitken, M. J., 1960, Magnetic dating, Archaeometry, 3, 41-44.

Aitken, M. J., and Middlemas, N, 1960, Cu65(γ, 3n) reaction and its bearing on the use of the Cu63(γ, n)Cu62 reaction for bremsstrahlung monitoring, Physical Review, 117, 1111-1112.

Aitken, M. J., 1960, The magnetic survey, Appendix I to S. S. Frere, Excavations at Verulamium 1959, 5th Interim Report, Antiquaries Journal, XL, 21-24.

Aitken, M. J., and Harold, M. R., 1959, Magnetic dating. II, Archaeometry, 2, 17-20.

Aitken, M. J., 1959, Magnetic prospecting. II (surveys), Archaeometry, 2, 32-36.

Aitken, M. J., 1959, Magnetic prospecting. IV. The proton magnetometer, Archaeometry, 2, 40-42.

Richards, E. E., and Aitken, M. J., 1959, Spectrographic and magnetic examination of some baked clay slab-moulds, Archaeometry, 2, 53-57.

Aitken, M. J., 1959, Test for correlation between dowsing response and magnetic disturbance, Archaeometry, 2, 58-59.

Kraay, C. M., Emeleus, V. M., and Aitken, M. J., 1959, Analysis of British Middle and Late Bronze-Age material using optical-emission spectrometry – reply, Archaeometry, 2, 62.

Hall, E. T., and Aitken, M. J., 1959, Availability of magnetic surveys: 1959, Archaeometry, 2, 63.

Aitken, M. J., 1959, Magnetic prospecting: an interim assessment, Antiquity, XXXIII, 205-208.

Aitken, M. J., Webster, G., and Rees, A., 1959, Magnetic prospecting, Antiquity, XXXII, 270-271.

Aitken, M. J., 1959, Detecting archaeological remains, The Listener, 327-328, Feb. 1959.

Aitken, M. J., 1958, Magnetic dating - 1, Archaeometry, 1, 16-20.

Aitken, M. J., 1958, Magnetic prospecting. 1. The Water Newton Survey, Archaeometry, 1, 24-29.

Whitehead, C., McMurray, W. R., Aitken, M. J., Middlemas, N., and Collie, C. H., 1958, Ejection of photoprotons from light elements by 45-110 MeV bremsstrahlung, Physical Review, 110, 941-953.

Aitken, M. J., 1958, Archaeology without digging: The proton magnetometer, The Illustrated London News, 560-561, Oct. 1958.

Aitken, M. J., 1953, An electrical analogue to a high vacuum system, British Journal of Applied Physics, 4, 188.

 

 

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