Following an interdisciplinary and cross-cultural approach, my study combines archaeological as well as linguistic knowledge of the Bronze Age clay tablet cultures of the Eastern Mediterranean. Within the framework of cognitive archaeology, I try to detect cognitive structures in Mycenaean and Ancient Near Eastern archives and archival texts. The first part focuses on the archaeological reality of public archives in both cultures taking into account aspects like their location, their association with object magazines, their furnishing as well as their inner organization. The second part observes the linguistic structure of the archival texts written in Mycenaean Greek and Akkadian with a special focus on the hierarchy of information. The results will be interpreted under the angle of cognitive archaeology, especially Material Engagement Theory, with an interest in the way in which differences as well as similarities in people’s cognitive structures are displayed in and can be read from the archaeological and linguistic remains of two distinct cultures.