Yellow Book 2021-22

The Yellow Book

Course guidance for candidates taking BA Archaeology & Anthropology in 2021-2022. For previous years see the link to the archive (below right). 


*While we hope that everything indicated herein will go ahead as planned some aspects (such as fieldwork requirements and practical classes) may need to be reassessed depending on the public health situation prevailing in the UK and globally.

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Dear Students

As the Heads of the School for Archaeology and the School of Anthropology and Museum Ethnography (SAME), it is our pleasure to congratulate and welcome you as the newest members of our dynamic community here within the University of Oxford. We hope that the next three years will be fulfilling and enjoyable.

You have chosen to study human cultures, past and present. Our two disciplines are fundamental to gaining an understanding of who we humans are. Our BA programme in Archaeology and Anthropology is unusual in the way it combines both subjects throughout the course, offering a comprehensive and broad guide to the richness and diversity of human cultural experience through space and time. Six institutions at Oxford are involved: the Institutes of Archaeology and of Social and Cultural Anthropology, the Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, the Ashmolean Museum, the Pitt Rivers Museum, and the Oxford University Museum of Natural History. If you haven’t visited any of the museums yet, don’t worry, you’ll be taking lessons and practical sessions in them throughout the course and you may even get to work as an intern in one.

Whilst studying with us you will also take advantage of Oxford’s world-leading libraries—the Bodleian, the Sackler, the Balfour and Tylor Libraries, and of course your college libraries. But it’s not all reading! At the end of your firstyear the world is your oyster as you undertake your own four-week archaeological or anthropological project (subject to approval, of course!).

We wish you all the best in your studies, and for your time at Oxford!

Dr David Pratten (Head of School - SAME) and Prof. Amy Bogaard (Head of School - School of Archaeology)

map of sites in Oxford used by arch and anth students



The ‘Yellow Book’ provides information and guidance for the course. Its sister publication the ‘Green Book’ details the course syllabus. If you have any questions our administrative and academic staff (email: are ready to hear from you and look forward to supporting you throughout your degree.


This is a guide for the convenience of students and staff. The definitive record of the course regulations can be found in the Examination Regulations ( Should there be, or appear to be, any conflict between statements in this handbook and the Examination Regulations then the latter shall prevail. Although the information in this handbook is accurate at the time of publication, aspects of the programme and of departmental practice may be subject to modification and revision. The University reserves the right to modify the programme in unforeseen circumstances, or where the process of academic development and feedback from students, quality assurance processes or external sources, such as professional bodies, requires a change to be made. In such circumstances, revised information will be issued.

Data Protection Act 1998

You should have received from your College a statement regarding student personal data, including a declaration for you to sign indicating your acceptance of that statement. Please contact your College’s Data Protection Officer if you have not. Further information on the Act can be obtained at


Michaelmas 2021: Sunday 10 October – Saturday 4 December 2021

Hilary 2022: Sunday 16 January – Saturday 12 March 2022

Trinity 2022: Sunday 24 April – Saturday 18 June 2022


Course Administration

Undergraduate Course Administrator – Rachel Maughan (School of Archaeology) 

Undergraduate Representative - - Francesca Muggli and Jakub Senesi (St Hugh's College)

Director of Undergraduate Studies for Archaeology and Anthropology – Dr Zuzanna Olszewska (St John’s College and SAME) -

Other useful contacts

Bodleian Main Desk – (2)77162

Archaeology and Tylor Anthropology Librarian - Helen Worrell (2)74582

Tylor Library Assistant - Martin Pevsner (2)74671

Oxford University Computing Services – (2)73200

Oxford Student Union – (2)88452

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Social Media Accounts

Q: Are you on our undergraduate Facebook page? Search for ‘BA Arch & Anth at Oxford’ and follow us on Twitter & Instagram [@School_of_arch]


Oxford University Archaeological Society:

Oxford University Anthropological Society:

Oxford University’s Society for Lesbian. Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer People:

Oxford University Nightline:

Student Advice Service:

Oxford University Travel Insurance:

Oxford University Counselling Service:

Oxford University Career Service:

Oxford University Disability Advisory Service:

Oxford University International Student Orientation Programme:

IT Learning Programme:

Oxford University Sports:

Oxford University Dramatic Society:

Oxford University Music Society:


Michaelmas Term



Deadline item




MT 0

1st years

Induction meeting and evening reception (Friday 8 October 2021)

MT 1

2nd years

Induction meeting for the FHS with DoUGs, (Friday 15 October 2021) TBC

MT 1 to 4

2nd years

Students hold preliminary discussions with their CT as to their dissertation topic

MT 6

3rd years

Submit dissertation title, topic summary and supervisor name (via online form) for final approval by the Board of Examiners (Midday Friday 19 November 2021)

MT 7

2nd years

Dissertation Briefing Meeting (Friday 26 November 2021)

MT 8

2nd years

Submit Fieldwork Report and Fieldwork Attendance Certificate to tutor

MT 8 or 9

3rd years

Submit a full first draft of their dissertation to their supervisor

Hilary Term

HT 1

3rd years

Dissertation Presentation day (Monday 17 January 2022)

HT 2

1st years

Fieldwork Conference (Friday 28 January 2022 tbc)

HT 1 to 4

1st years

Students discuss with CT proposed Fieldwork Project(s) to take place in the Long Vacation after the 1st year of study.

Fieldwork Risk Assessment & Insurance Applications must be submitted by Friday week 4 TT

HT 9

1st & 2nd years

Discuss with your CT which options you might like to take. Refer to the Green Book and the ‘Options GRID’ spreadsheet.

HT 9

1st years

Students must submit their Fieldwork Project Proposal (via online form) to UG Support by midday, Friday for approval by the Standing Committee

HT 9

3rd years

Submit final dissertation online by midday, Friday (Full details and instructions will be provided by UG Support in advance)

Trinity Term

TT 0

2nd years

Students submit their dissertation proposal (online form) by midday, Wednesday

TT 2 to 4

1st & 2nd years

Option choosing window opens & closes. Submit your option paper choices to your (via online form) by midday, Friday week 4

TT 4

1st & 2nd years

Students submit their signed and completed Fieldwork and/or Dissertation Risk Assessments for their summer fieldwork projects to by midday, Friday

TT 5 & 6

3rd years

Final Honour School Exams

TT 8

3rd years

Honour School reception for finalists (Date tbc)

TT 9

1st years

Honour Moderations Exams


Students reading BA Archaeology and Anthropology undertake four core papers in their first year. While some relevant aspects of the Honour School may have been covered in subjects studied at school the Honour Moderations course (Mods) taken in the first year offers a broad introduction which assumes no prior knowledge of the constituent disciplines. These subjects are examined in Trinity Term of the first year by four three-hour papers of three questions each. The first Long Vacation includes a period of fieldwork.

The second and third years are occupied in preparation for four core papers (five for those beginning the degree in 2021) and three option papers of the Final Honour School (FHS), plus the writing of a 15,000-word dissertation on a subject approved by the Standing Committee.

The FHS continues the principle of balancing detailed knowledge of particular periods and areas (or scientific topics), which are explored as option subjects. Students choose three option subjects, either anthropological or archaeological, to study in their second and third years.

These together with the core papers are examined in Trinity Term of the third year for those who came up to Oxford in 2019 or 2020. For students coming up in October 2021 the second-year option and the new Fieldwork and Methods paper (see below) will be examined during the second year of the degree.

Core papers:

Honour Moderations (1st year)

Paper 1. Introduction to World Archaeology

Paper 2. Introduction to Anthropological Theory

Paper 3. Perspectives on Human Evolution

Paper 4. The Nature of Archaeological and Anthropological Enquiry

Final Honour School (2nd and 3rd years)

Paper 1. Social Analysis and Interpretation

Paper 2. Cultural Representations, Beliefs and Practices

Paper 3. Landscape and Ecology

Paper 4. Urbanism and Society

Paper 5. Fieldwork and Methods (for those commencing the degree in October 2021)

For more information about each paper and option, etc. please refer to the Green Book

Your College Tutor

You will meet your college tutor (or one of them) during the first few days of your course. They will have made arrangements for your tutorials and the various classes you will be taking, and will discuss with you the options which you might choose and your timetable for studying them. When you have concerns or doubts, particularly if they are of an academic nature, your tutor will normally be the first person to consult: you should not hesitate to do this and you should normally do this with regard to any academic matter before approaching anyone else.

The college tutor is in sole charge of the teaching of any undergraduate reading Archaeology and Anthropology in his or her college. This includes:

  • arranging all the tutorials the student needs
  • helping the student to find a suitable fieldwork project
  • helping the student to choose their three option papers for the FHS
  • helping the student to devise a suitable dissertation topic
  • ensuring that students submit their fieldwork proposals, fieldwork report, slate of options and dissertation topic at the required time.

It will probably be a rule of your College that you call on College Tutors at the beginning of each term to arrange tuition, and at the end of term to arrange vacation reading and next term’s subjects. In any case it would be wise to pay such calls, if necessary, on your own initiative. Colleges have different rules about when term ‘begins’. The official start is Sunday of First Week of Full Term, but you will certainly be expected back before then, and you should try to ensure that by the Sunday you know who your tutors for the term will be, have met or corresponded with them, and have been set work and been assigned tutorial times by them.

Most Colleges have a system of feedback whereby you can comment on your tutorials (including your own performance within them) and your tutors: this is normally done by a written questionnaire, though the format varies considerably. Please do use these questionnaires: confidentiality can always be assured if you wish, and comments (even if made anonymously) are extremely useful both to the College and to the tutors themselves. If you come to feel that you need a change of tutor, don’t just do nothing, but take the problem to someone else in your College – your College Tutor (if he or she is not the individual in question), your JCR Academic Representative, your Senior Tutor, the Women's Adviser, the Chaplain, or even the Head of College, if necessary. Such problems are rare, but most arise from a personality-clash that has proved intractable. However, since in a university of Oxford's size there are likely to be alternative tutors for nearly all your subjects, there’s no point in putting up with a relationship which is impeding your academic progress. In these circumstances you can usually expect a change, but not necessarily to the particular tutor whom you would prefer.

At the end of each term you can expect formal reports on your work, either alone with your College Tutor, or with the Head of College, perhaps in the presence of your Tutors. These are intended to be two-way exchanges: if you have concerns about your work or your tuition, do not hesitate to say so.

Course Co-Ordinators

The Course Co-ordinator manages all aspects of an individual course or paper including:

  1. the syllabus and lecture programme
  2. the list of proposed tutorial topics (though these are for guidance only and individual tutors may vary what is suggested) and the course bibliography
  3. arranging for the lectures for the course to be given (negotiating with all lecturers involved, booking rooms, and sorting out timings that do not clash with other classes)
  4. providing tutors for their paper with relevant documentation

If tutors or students have any queries about a particular course these should be made to the course co-ordinator, and the course co-ordinator should be ready to advise on, for example, who might appropriately tutor a given student for the course. If the course needs tutorials to be given by more than one type of specialist, in some special order, or at some specific time of the year, it is the responsibility of the course co-ordinator to ensure that college tutors are informed of this.

The course co-ordinator should annually, in consultation with those lecturing for the course and also those giving tutorials for the course, revise The Green Book entry i.e. syllabus, scheme of lectures, list of proposed tutorial topics and course bibliography. All proposed revisions should be notified to the Undergraduate Administrator of the School of Archaeology in the first instance through the

The course co-ordinator will supply lists of tutorial topics and, if requested, sample examination questions to the examiners. After Trinity Term the Undergraduate Administrator will circulate a draft of the Green Book for the coming academic year. It is the responsibility of course co-ordinators to check this draft, ensure that it represents accurately their intentions for the course, make sure that all lecturers involved are aware well in advance of exactly when they are to perform, book all appropriate lecture rooms, and answer any specific queries which the Administrator may raise.

In the cases of timetabling clashes it is the course co-ordinator's responsibility to liaise with the other course co-ordinator involved and resolve the clash.

Tutorials and Collections

In addition to lectures, which you are strongly advised to attend, the other main focus of teaching throughout your time in Oxford will be tutorials. A tutorial is a meeting between the tutor and no more than three students. Larger groups are defined as a class.

Throughout Mods and FHS, undergraduates should normally receive 12 tutorials a term (i.e. the equivalent of one and a half papers). These should ideally be spaced to give three tutorials a fortnight, rather than four in the first half of term and eight in the second half of term. The only exceptions to this are likely to be in Trinity Term of a student’s first year (when 8 only should be offered to allow time for revision for Mods), and either the Michaelmas or the Hilary Terms of the third year, when only eight tutorials (or the equivalent in seminars) should normally be given to allow time for work on the dissertation.

A tutorial is interactive. The more you bring to a tutorial or class, the more you will gain from it. Tutorials are an opportunity for you to raise the issues and ask the questions which are troubling you, and to try out your own ideas in discussion with someone of greater experience; classes are an opportunity to explore issues together, and to get used to general discussion.

For most tutorials, and for many classes, you will be asked to produce written work, and a good deal of your time will be spent writing and preparing essays on topics suggested by your tutors. They will normally direct you towards some secondary reading.

Most Colleges set at least one ‘collection’, i.e. a practice examination paper, at the beginning of each term; many set two, and some expect a vacation essay as well, particularly in the Long (i.e. summer) Vacation. Collections will sometimes be on a subject studied in the previous term, sometimes on the reading which you will have covered over the vacation.

There is tremendous variety in the ways that tutors approach tutorials, and that is a strength of the system. Given this variety, do not worry if your peers in other Colleges seem to be doing things differently for any given paper; your own College Tutor knows how best to prepare you for your course and examinations.

Your tutors will give you regular feedback in the form of comments on your work. It is reasonable to expect written comments on any work a tutor takes in; but it is exceptionally rare for tutors to put marks on written work, except for collections. If you are left uncertain about the general quality of your work, do not hesitate to ask, but remember that your degree — and learning about Archaeology & Anthropology — is much more than a mere matter of marks, hence our reluctance to mark tutorial essays.

Lectures (timetables, format and feedback)

An archaeology and anthropology lecture list is published each term, covering all the lectures in Mods and Finals, on the School of Archaeology webpage at

Lectures do not always coincide with the term in which you are writing essays on that subject. Important lectures may come a term or two before your tutorials; in this case you should read in advance the texts which are being lectured on, even if that reading has to be in translation.

Each term the Undergraduate Student Representative (UG Rep) for the degree will encourage you to share your feedback about the course and papers with them at meetings in week 3 or via their email. The UG Rep shares this feedback with the Standing Committee for the degree, once in MT and HT, and twice in TT. Finalists will also be invited to attend an ‘Exit Interview’ with members of the Committee in Week 7 or 8 of TT. You are encouraged to provide feedback since this helps the School too and is also for the benefit of future students.

Lectures aim to provide a broad overview of fact and theory by experts in particular areas. While tutorials allow students to pursue special issues in greater depth and to develop their own views, together with skills in writing and argumentation, it is impossible to benefit fully from them — or to do well in examinations — without the broader perspectives offered by lectures.

Practical Classes

Archaeology and many aspects of anthropology involve an appreciation of objects and scientific samples. The course also involves a number of practical skills concerning scientific techniques and the analysis of materials and these issues can only be addressed through practical classes. In these classes students will be able to see at first hand scientific laboratories (the University of Oxford has one of the largest laboratories for archaeological science in the country) and analyse material from archaeological sites. Practical classes are an integral part of the course and allow students to develop an appreciation of the physical evidence and its analysis that it is impossible to achieve second hand.

The practical classes offered are an essential component of the course and are linked to lectures given earlier in the year. Failure to attend all classes without reasonable cause will be treated by College Tutors/Directors of Studies as being comparable to missing tutorials without good cause. More specifically, for those starting the degree in October 2021 attendance is compulsory and failure to attend without reasonable cause will result in marks being deducted from the associated papers in Mods (in 2022) or Finals (in 2023-24).

If there is good reason why a student cannot attend a particular class at the time assigned (for example, an urgent medical appointment), then he or she should contact the person holding the class in advance and ask if it might be possible to be allocated another time.


Students must spend at least four weeks working on a project of their choice which is relevant to the aims and objectives of the course. It is recommended that fieldwork will be carried out during the first Long Vacation though it would be possible for a student (in exceptional cases) to fulfil the obligation during the Easter Vacation of the second year.

Students should discuss proposed projects with their tutors not later than the beginning of Hilary Term of their first year. Projects may consist of archaeological or anthropological fieldwork, or an internship in a museum or laboratory. All field training projects in archaeology or anthropology must include supervised training in, and practice of, some technique or techniques relevant to field research. Equally, museum- or laboratory-based work must entail supervised training in relevant skills and methods (e.g., as a formal internship).

Students are expected to make their own arrangements with the project director (usually during Hilary Term or the Easter vacation) and to inform their tutor of them. Students must ensure that their own, independently selected project is approved by the Standing Committee in Week 1 of Trinity Term. Thus the deadline for submitting their project proposal is Week 9 of Hilary Term. This is necessary in order that sufficient time is left for any difficulties surrounding a project’s health and safety risk assessment to be addressed in good time. Students must email with the name and location of the project, the name and institutional affiliation of the project director and a brief (± 100 words) description of the project itself. If there is a website for the project that should also be included.

It is the student's responsibility to ensure that the project director completes the relevant section of the Field Attendance Certificate (

Finding Fieldwork

When searching for fieldwork opportunities, students should in the first instance talk to their College Tutor who will be able to advise them and may even be able to take them on a project. Fieldwork may be taken at home or abroad, but there is no need for it to be undertaken outside a student’s normal country of residence. The following links may be useful in your search:

Work Experience/Internships with local museums & heritage organisations

Lots of museums offer work experience roles and you can contact them directly or ask the 

Undergraduate Administrator to liaise with them on your behalf. Be sure to ask them lots of questions about what the work experience day-to-day activities will be and ideally look for roles which are varied. Smaller, regional museums often have more need for volunteers and will have projects you can really get your teeth into so don't forget to ask in your hometown. Here are a few links to get you started in your search with respect to Oxford’s museums and others elsewhere in the United Kingdom:

Fieldwork Report

Each student is required to write a fieldwork report on the work he or she has undertaken. The report will take the form of critical review of it and of its aims, objectives, and results, both those already published and those apparent in the light of their own participation. Reports will be expected to contextualise the project within the broader field(s) of Archaeology & Anthropology and relate it to issues of ethics, theory, and methodology previously encountered during Honour Moderations. Inclusion of appropriate illustrations (including, where relevant, maps, diagrams, and photographs) is encouraged. The report may be divided into clearly labelled subsections and must be accompanied by a full bibliography listing all references cited set out according to the Harvard system (see below in section 6.3).

The report should aim for, but not exceed, 5,000 words It constitutes 50% of the Fieldwork and Methods paper of the Final Honour School and is assessed during the second year of the degree. A draft version of the report should be submitted to the relevant College Tutor by Friday of Week 8 of Michaelmas Term of the second year so that it can be returned with comment and advice.

The completed version of the report should then be submitted to the Exam Schools in accordance with the relevant Examination Conventions by no later than noon on Friday of Week 9 of Hilary Term of the second year. A completed Fieldwork Attendance Certificate, signed by the student’s College Tutor, should be submitted with the report.

A completed Field Attendance Certificate should also be submitted to the College Tutor at that time.

Funding Fieldwork

Before choosing a particular fieldwork project, students should give serious consideration to the costs likely to be incurred, such as travel and subsistence, insurance, and, depending on destination, vaccinations and/or other treatment recommended by OUHS or their GP. The Honour School offers a grant as a contribution towards these costs; currently students may claim expenses up to £720 by completing a Fieldwork Claims Form This form must be signed by the College Tutor and can be submitted either before or after fieldwork has been completed. Students may also be able to obtain additional funding from their College.

Risk Assessments, Travel Insurance and Funding

Risk assessments

In accordance with University regulations, students who undertake fieldwork as an essential part of their course must complete a Fieldwork Risk Assessment form to be approved and signed by the Head of School prior to any work starting.

NOTE: If your fieldwork is anthropological in nature (e.g. it involves working with animals, interviewing   people, etc.)   then   you   must   complete   a CUREC   form and   submit   an Anthropology Risk Assessment form instead which can both be found on the SAME website (

Please Note - you need to allow a minimum of six weeks prior to your date of travel for the necessary paperwork to be completed. All first year BA Arch & Anth first years must submit their risk assessment by Week 4 of Trinity Term at the latest.

Travel Insurance

You must also apply for University travel insurance and you will need to complete a travel insurance application available here: .

Please submit this (with as much detail as you can - flight bookings can be confirmed at a later date). It will require you to upload your Risk Assessment form.

Once your Risk Assessement has been signed off by the Head of School, you can download and take the policy form and emergency contact details with you on your travels:

For the most up to date links for Fieldwork forms please visit the School website internal pages

Dissertation Milestones and timelines

2nd Year

MICHAELMAS TERM: students discuss possible dissertation topics with their College Tutor or Director of Studies, begin to identify and select a potential dissertation supervisor and attend the Dissertation Briefing Meeting.

CHRISTMAS VACATION: students think about the general area in which he or she will write the dissertation and start any relevant general background reading.

HILARY TERM/EASTER VACATION: students continue with relevant background reading and formulate a 100-word synopsis with their chosen specialist supervisor. Students begin to undertake more detailed reading with the assistance of the supervisor. If research is likely to involve human participants, they will need to discuss potential ethical issues arising with their supervisor. A CUREC application may need to be filled out, and clearance obtained, prior to any research involving human participants.

TRINITY TERM: students submit the title and synopsis of their dissertation with an email of support from supervisor by Wednesday of Noughth Week to the Standing Committee (email the details to Students see their supervisor again to ensure that the nature and scope of their research and the structure of their dissertation are clear. If relevant and not already obtained, CUREC clearance is applied for and a relevant Risk Assessment completed.

SUMMER VACATION: as much work as possible – and certainly all fieldwork – should be done during this vacation. If there is to be a catalogue of material it should be substantially complete by its end. At least one third of the dissertation should be drafted in a form suitable for the supervisor to comment on by the beginning of Michaelmas Term.

3rd Year

MICHAELMAS TERM: substantial work is undertaken on the dissertation

0TH WEEK: students submit work done over the summer to their supervisor.

In or after 1ST WEEK: students receive back written and oral comments on submitted work from their supervisor, agree with their supervisor the timetable for completion of the dissertation, and meet their supervisor on further occasions as required during the rest of the Term.

Students should present a full first draft to supervisor by no later than the START OF HILARY TERM.

BEGINNING OF HILARY TERM: students give a brief presentation on their dissertation topic and the progress made. This should incorporate supervisor's comments on the draft of the dissertation.

END OF HILARY TERM: Dissertation is submitted online via Inspera. (Full instructions will be provided)

Guidelines for Dissertation Writers

The role of your College Tutor

Students should be encouraged to hold preliminary discussions as to their dissertation topic in the first instance with their College Tutor in Michaelmas Term of the second year. The College Tutor may offer suggestions for potentially suitable supervisors for the student to approach. Advice on choosing a topic, doing research and writing a dissertation is also given. The student must be encouraged to complete research for the dissertation during the Long Vacation between the second and third years. Students will be asked to give a brief presentation on their dissertation topic and the progress they have made at the beginning of Hilary Term of their third year of study.

Submitting your dissertation proposal

Notice of the title of the dissertation, a synopsis of about 100 words, along with a letter of support from the tutor who will supervise the dissertation, must be sent to the Undergraduate Administrator of the School of Archaeology for submission to the Standing Committee not later than Wednesday of Noughth Week of Trinity Term of the second year for approval by the Standing Committee at their meeting on Monday of First Week of Trinity Term. Note that normally dissertation supervisors must be members of the School of Anthropology or the School of Archaeology and that they cannot be graduate students. 

Procedure for changing your dissertation proposal

A student wishing to change the title of their dissertation after the Standing Committee has approved it must notify the Undergraduate Administrator of the School of Archaeology as early as possible (for approval by the Standing Committee's Chairperson. In exceptional circumstances, a student may wish to make more substantial changes to their dissertation topic and title. Where this is the case, a revised title and synopsis should be submitted to Standing Committee no later than Wednesday of Fourth Week of Michaelmas Term of the third year.

The role of your supervisor

The dissertation supervisor is required to offer a minimum of four tutorials but can give up to a maximum of eight. The student should contact the supervisor to request the first meeting with him or her (to be held in HT of the second year) at which time they should both agree a schedule of regular meetings. In this first meeting the supervisor should attempt to establish the stages at which the student should be expected to have reached at various points. The supervisor will assist in the choice of a topic and give initial advice on relevant sources and methods. He or she will advise on sources and presentation and assist with bibliographical advice; he or she will certainly expect to read draft chapters or sections. The supervisor should see that written work is prepared as appropriate in accordance with the course requirements and structure. Such work should be returned with constructive criticism and in reasonable time. However, he or she should also, if asked, read and comment on a complete first draft. Dissertation supervisors should ensure that, from time to time, students are told how their work is progressing and should also try to ensure that the student feels properly directed and able to communicate with them. Supervisors are expected to respond to student emails and queries in a timely manner and to adhere to the agreed timeline for meetings unless exceptional circumstances prevent them from doing so. In the event of any difficulties being experienced with this then students should discuss the matter urgently with their College Tutor.

The role of the student

Students are responsible for initiating contact with potential supervisors; having agreed a timeline for the research and writing of the dissertation, students are expected to adhere to this, unless exceptional circumstances prevent them from doing so. They are expected to communicate in a timely manner with their supervisor and to submit work to the deadlines agreed. Students must not expect supervisors to chase them for work or updates on progress.

Dissertations - General Advice

A  good dissertation contains a consecutive argument or set of arguments on its topic. Apart from showing a sound grasp of the secondary literature on the field and/or period and an awareness of the problems of the topic, the writer deploys the evidence of the sources to support the elements in the general argument. It is made clear how the writer has approached the topic, what conclusions have been reached and, if appropriate, how the approach and conclusions are related to the views of other scholars.

The work should be well-written and properly presented; its references should be in orderly, consistent in the way they are cited and sensibly-selected. Good presentation, in the experience of many examiners, is usually combined with high quality of analysis. Conversely, careless or unclear writing, uncorrected mis-spellings, typing errors and misquotations often go with an uncertain or myopic focus on the topic.

Authors sometimes become so interested in their topic that they overlook the need to provide at least a brief introduction to it and — equally, if not more, important — to set it in its broader historical context or contexts. An introductory section to a dissertation may often usefully include a survey of the existing literature on a topic and 'pointers' to its particular interest and problems.

While reading and research are being carried out, planning how to shape materials into an argument must be seen as a simultaneous process. Laboriously collected materials are worthless unless made to contribute to a coherent argument. For this reason, planning of both your structure and content should start as early as possible; some plans may need to be discarded until the most feasible one has been found.

It is a reasonable assumption that writing the dissertation will take longer than expected: a good dissertation will certainly require more than one draft of parts if not of the whole. Plenty of time should be allowed for getting the final typed version into presentable form without this disrupting work for other papers or revision. You should allow plenty of time to review and edit draft versions of your dissertation, and work closely with your supervisor.

Students should remember that the dissertation counts as two Finals papers and should thus organise their time accordingly.

Regulations to note:

The subject of an Archaeology and Anthropology dissertation may, but need not, overlap with a subject or period on which the candidate offers papers. Candidates must not extensively repeat material used in their dissertation in any of their papers, and will not be given credit for such material.

Any non-text/non-paper materials which a student wishes to submit as part of the dissertation must be justified in writing accompanying the synopsis for approval by the Standing Committee. For example, material essential for understanding the dissertation might be approved for submission as an appendix.

Candidates must certify on submitting their dissertation that it is their own work, and supervisors must countersign this certificate (which must also state that the dissertation has not previously been submitted, in whole or part, for another Final Honours School or other degree in Oxford or elsewhere).

Dissertation Format Guidelines


A 15,000 word dissertation, double-line spaced and justified, 11 or 12 font size text on A4 paper will normally take up 45-50 sides. The word count includes footnotes (the use of which should, in any case, be kept to a minimum). It excludes the table of contents, lists of figures and tables, the content of tables, captions, acknowledgements, appendices and bibliography.


Pagination should run consecutively from beginning to end and include any appendices etc. Cross references should be to pages and not simply to any sectional divisions. It is normally the case that front matter (abstract, acknowledgements, lists of contents, tables and figures) are numbered in small Roman script (i, ii, iii etc.) and the remainder of the dissertation in Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3 etc.).

Title page to include:

The title followed by: ‘University of Oxford, Final Honour School Archaeology and Anthropology’, the final word count and your Candidate number (please note this is NOT your student number)


Order of contents

  • A table of contents, showing, in sequence, with page numbers, the subdivisions of the dissertation. Titles of chapters and appendices should be given; titles of subsections of chapters may be given.
  • A list of abbreviations, cue-titles, symbols etc.
  • A brief introduction in which the examiner's attention is drawn to the aims and broad argument(s) of the work and in which any relevant points about sources and obligations to the work of other scholars are made.
  • The dissertation itself, divided into chapters. The chapters should have clear, short descriptive titles.
  • A conclusion, consisting of a few hundred words which summarise the findings and briefly explore their implications.
  • Any appendices.
  • A bibliography. All cited works must be listed. Works should be listed alphabetically by surname of author (see below for the form of references to be used).


These (except for references) should be as few and as brief as possible: they count towards the overall word-limit. The practice of putting into footnotes information which cannot be digested in the text should be avoided. Notes should be printed, single-spaced, at the foot of the page if the technology you are employing allows this to be done conveniently. Footnote numbers should be in superscript (not bracketed) and run in a continuous sequence through each chapter.

Tables, Maps and Graphs

You are encouraged to employ tables, maps, and graphs on any occasion when an argument can be more clearly and elegantly expressed by their employment. These should be inserted into the body of the text at the relevant point and their relevance explained clearly in the text. They should not be collected together at the end of the dissertation.


These should be used only to convey essential data which cannot be elegantly subsumed within the body of the text. They are particularly appropriate for material which does not count within the word limit of the dissertation, such as catalogues of material evidence or tables of experimental results. As such this material is not part of the formal assessment and should be included for illustrative purposes only, to be available for consultation by examiners.


When reference is given for a quotation or for a viewpoint or item of information it must be precise. However, judgment needs to be exercised as to when reference is required: statements of fact which no reader would question do not need to be supported by references.

References should follow the Harvard System and be given in the text by the author's name and the year of publication (with page and/or illustration references). For example: '...Clark (1967: 23) was of the opinion that...', '...It therefore represents a variation of a comb technique seen in a Grooved Ware context at Marsden (Wainwright 1971: 121).

All works referred to in this way must be listed in full at the end of the text in alphabetical order by author's name. These references should take the following (or a very similar) form:

1. Books

Renfrew, C. 1987: Archaeology and Language. The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins (London, Cape).

2. Contributions to books

Hurwit, J.M. 1993: Art, Poetry and the Polis in the Age of Homer. In S. Langdon ed. From Pasture to Polis: Art in the Age of Homer (Columbia and London, University of Missouri Press) 14-42.

3. Journal Articles

Carter, J. 1972: The Beginning of Narrative Art in the Greek Geometric Period. Annual of the British School at Athens 67, 25-58. [N.B. volume numbers in arabic numerals].

If several publications by the same author and from the same year are cited, a, b, c, etc. should be added to the year of publication (1972a,1972b etc.). The use of the phrase et al. (= et alii) to indicate multiple authorship is permissible in the text, but not in the list of references, where all names should be given. The user of ibid. is not permitted. 

In subject areas where standard abbreviations for much-quoted books and periodicals are in common use, these abbreviations may be employed in text, footnotes, or bibliography, and they should be listed separately before the bibliography. Works referred to for their illustrations only, rather than arguments, need not be given full entries in the bibliography.

Italics should be used for: titles of books and periodicals; technical terms or phrases in languages other than English (but not for quotations in foreign languages); for abbreviations which are abbreviations of foreign words (e.g., loc. cit.). Most such abbreviations are best avoided altogether.

Above all, every attempt should be made to be consistent in practice throughout the dissertation. Capitals should be used as sparingly as possible. They should be used for institutions and corporate bodies when the name used is the official title or part of the official title.

4.  Electronic sources

Sources from the Internet should be referenced as far as possible in the same form as other sources and provided with a date on which they were accessed.

Submitting your Dissertation

A PDF copy of your dissertation must be submitted online via Inspera (Oxford University's online exam platform) by noon on Friday of Ninth week of Hilary Term.  Full instructions will be provided by UG Support ahead of the deadline.

Dissertations must bear the candidate's examination number but not his or her name.


Examination Conventions and Regulations

Examination conventions are the formal record of the specific assessment standards for the course or courses to which they apply. They set out how your examined work will be marked and how the resulting marks will be used to arrive at a final result and classification of your award. They include information on: marking scales, marking and classification criteria, scaling of marks, progression, resits, use of viva voce examinations, penalties for late submission, and penalties for over-length work. Examination Regulations for the degree are available here (

For further details and the most up-to-date version of the School’s exam conventions please refer to the Student Resources section of the School of Archaeology website.

Examination Entry

Please refer to the following Oxford Student website for examination entry and alternative examination arrangements:

Examination Dates and Past Exam Papers

Timetables are published as early as possible and no later than five weeks before the start of the examination at the following website: Past exam papers can be found on OXAM -

Sitting Your Examination

Information on (a) the standards of conduct expected in examinations and (b) what to do if you would like examiners to be aware of any factors that may have affected your performance before or during an examination (such as illness, accident or bereavement) are available on the Oxford Students website: You should contact your College immediately in the event of any matters that may affect performance, NOT the Examiners, Moderators, or Undergraduate Administrator. 

External Examiner and Examiner Reports

Please refer to the Student Resources section of the School of Archaeology website for Examiners’ reports (including the external examiner’s reports).

Academic Transcripts

Extra copies or ‘on-course’ copies of your academic transcript can be ordered (for a fee) from the online store

Guidance on Examinations

These remarks supplement the Instructions to Candidates (circulated to Finalists in Hilary Term of the final year), and are intended as informal advice for those taking examinations. You may also wish to visit the University Exam Schools website ( where you will find useful information regarding mock examinations, timetables, academic dress and how to arrange alternative examination arrangements. Note that information on the details of the examination procedure is subject to change given the current public health situation.

Revision and preparation

Revision should adequately cover the complete scope of the paper. Together with the course descriptions in the Green Book, papers from previous years form a good guide to the kinds of topics which are likely to be covered in exam questions. It is a good idea to answer some of these under practice exam conditions, if you have not regularly done this in collections. As the basis for examination questions, different questions are set each year. However, key topics are usually represented in one form or another, and it is worthwhile looking at several exam papers both to see what they are, and to see what specific twist is being imparted by the way a particular question is phrased. Do take care to consider and answer the question that has been posed, not some other version of it that you wish you had been asked. 

Examination procedure

At the current time examinations are held online and in an ‘open-book’ format.

At the beginning of the exam, read all the questions through carefully, and select ones you might wish to answer; read these extra carefully to make sure that you understand them. Having selected a question (probably your best one first, but beware of spending too much time on it to the detriment of the others), consider its implications carefully. Examiners are not trying to catch you out: there are no "trick" questions: but each one has a specific angle, and you should identify what it is. Note particularly any restrictions (e.g., if the question is about the origins of cities in the Old World, do not describe New World urbanisation, except perhaps in a single comparative sentence to make a specific point). Think of the relevant bodies of theory as well as facts; and consider what is expected in a convincing answer, i.e., answer the question posed, not one of your own. (On the other hand, do not be afraid of pointing out what you consider logical flaws or suspect concepts in a question: a well-argued critique may be as appropriate as a mechanical survey of received wisdom — but make sure that you demonstrate you are fully in command of the material and ideas).

Questions which are divided EITHER...OR mean what they say: the topics overlap, but the actual questions are different. Do not answer an amalgam of both.

You have one hour per question: pace yourself through the whole three hours. If you only answer two questions, you will only get marks for two questions; however good one answer may be, it does not make up for the marks lost by missing one (70 + 70 + 0 = 140, score 46 = Class III; 65 + 63 + 52 = 180, score 60 = Class IIi.) Each answer should be as finished as the others. Outline answers in note form are a poor substitute and cannot gain anything like the marks of a finished piece of prose. With an hour per question, there should be plenty of time for each.

One common reason for running out of time is starting one question and abandoning it for another. This is why time spent at the beginning, choosing which questions to do, and really thinking why one is preferable to another. Even if you have to spend five minutes choosing between questions, you could avoid losing a very substantial number of marks resulting from making the wrong choice and then changing. If in doubt, think.

Answering Questions

It may be helpful to scribble down on a scrap-sheet keywords for all the things (ideas, examples, people, places, books, etc.) which you will want to cover in the answer, in a stream- of consciousness or random-access mode. But that is not an essay plan, it is the raw material for it. It needs to be followed by a proper structural plan of the sequence of points (including facts, arguments, theory) which you wish to present. This is not to inhibit creativity, but to guide it. The structure should be evident in the written essay. Time used in planning at this stage is well spent: do not be panicked into writing before you are ready, because you will use the time more effectively by knowing where you are going.

The opening and closing paragraphs are critical, and deserve more attention than any others: they are what set the reader's perception at the outset, and give a final impression. Make them good. And read the question again, before you write the last paragraph. Have you answered it?

A good answer is heterogenous in composition: a mixture of gritty facts (i.e., observations, who made them, where, when, how reliably), heady theory (who said it, which school of thought it characterises, what it is meant to explain) and smooth argument (why one view is more convincing than another). Answers which are purely theoretical or only factual, or which fail to bring the two together, will receive fewer marks.

Answers which demonstrate a broad perspective, and connect the specific with the general, are likely to be rewarded; anthropological arguments in archaeology questions or archaeological examples in anthropology questions, are encouraged. Relevant examples drawn from subjects covered in options are also encouraged — that is what the options are for, to provide in-depth case studies; though if you simply reproduce much the same material in two papers, it will be noticed, and will not be evaluated so highly a second time. (But do not avoid using relevant examples because you think you may need them in another context.)

Final Remarks

Questions are set to give you the opportunity to show what you know and how well you understand it. Show that you share this enthusiasm.

If you feel that you have suffered a serious disadvantage or have a legitimate concern after completing a written public examination then you must contact your College Tutor or College Office immediately. In case of illness this will also need to be supported by a medical certificate.


The Honour School and the University provide a number of prizes to encourage and reward strong academic performance.

a) The Meyerstein Prize is awarded to the individual with the highest mark in Honour Moderations at the end of the first year.

b) The Sir Barry Cunliffe Fieldwork Prize is awarded to the individual judged to have written the best fieldwork report.

c) Gibbs Prizes are awarded to the individual coming at the top of the Class List in Finals and the person coming in second place.

d) A further Gibbs Prize is awarded to person receiving the highest mark given for an undergraduate dissertation.

Additionally, Colleges may award Exhibitions and Scholarships or other Prizes to acknowledge performance in Honour Moderations, Finals or at other times during the degree.



Academic Integrity: Good Practice in Citation, and the Avoidance of Plagiarism

If you are unclear about how to take notes or use web- sourced material properly, or what is acceptable practice when writing your essay, fieldwork project report, dissertation etc, please ask for advice from your tutor. The most up-to-date advice and information about plagiarism and how to avoid it is also available here at

Section    5.4    of   the    Proctor   and    Assessors’    Student    Handbook (available    here: has the following statement about plagiarism:

All students must carefully read Regulations 3, 4, 5 and 6 in the Proctors’ Disciplinary Regulations for University Examinations, which make clear that:

  • you must always indicate to the examiners when you have drawn on the work of others
  • other people’s original ideas and methods should be clearly distinguished from your own
  • other people’s words, illustrations, diagrams etc should be clearly indicated regardless of whether they are copied exactly, paraphrased, or adapted
  • material you have previously submitted for examination, at this University or elsewhere, cannot be re-used unless specifically permitted in the special Subject Regulations.

Failure to acknowledge your sources by clear citation and referencing constitutes plagiarism. The University reserves the right to use software applications to screen any individual’s submitted work for matches either to published sources or to other submitted work. In some examinations, all candidates are asked to submit electronic copies of essays, dissertations etc for screening by ‘Turnitin’. Any matches might indicate either plagiarism or collusion. Although you are encouraged to use electronic resources in academic work, you must remember that the plagiarism regulations apply to online material and other digital material just as much as they do to printed material.

The University’s Education Committee has also produced and approved an extensive set of web pages, including new video resources on academic skills such as note-taking and time management. These can be found via

The University has also invested in a new Plagiarism Awareness online course ( which you are strongly advised to complete early in your course of studies.

If University examiners believe that material submitted by a candidate may be plagiarised, they will refer the matter to the Proctors. The Proctors will suspend a student’s examination while they fully investigate such cases (this can include interviewing the student). If they consider that a breach of the disciplinary regulations has occurred, the Proctors are empowered to refer the matter to the Student Disciplinary Panel. Where plagiarism is proven, it will be dealt with severely: in the most extreme cases, this can result in the student’s career at Oxford being ended by expulsion from the University.


The Standing Committee acknowledges that students may wish to record teaching sessions to support their learning. This practice may be used to supplement students’ lecture experiences and help them to concentrate on actively participating in classes. The Standing Committee also recognizes that legal issues arise in relation to the recording of lectures, as students, staff and external parties have rights regarding their work and participation. Copyright and data protection laws are applicable whenever personal data is being processed, including where recording is being made of identifiable living individuals. This policy aims to protect the intellectual and privacy rights of individuals by setting out the conditions under which recording may occur and by specifying the consequences of breaching this policy.

Definitions and Other Premises

  1. This policy applies to all students and staff involved in teaching and learning.
  2. The term “recording” refers to audio recording alone. Video recording and photographs are not permitted.
  3. The term “lecturer” refers to any University employee involved in teaching and learning.
  4. This policy does not cover small group teaching (tutorial, seminar, student-led presentation, or other meetings). This policy sets out the conditions for recording lectures only.
  5. Copyright does not belong to the student making the recording.
  6. By recording identifiable living individuals, individuals are processing their personal data, which needs their consent.
  7. Recorded lectures build on the value of the lecture and should not be seen as a replacement for lecture attendance.

Permission to Record

  1. All students may record a lecture after the lecturer has granted them permission. There is no requirement for disabled students to seek permission additional to that already granted to them by virtue of their disability.
  2. Permission to record a session is granted to a student on the understanding that no intellectual property right in the recording passes to the student.
  3. Lecturers should normally give permission unless they have good reason not to: this includes, but is not limited to, the inclusion of sensitive material, the infringement of copyright, data protection or commercial intellectual property.
  4. If the lecturer does not grant permission, then an alternative format may be provided when feasible and deemed to be an appropriate adjustment (e.g. transcript of the lecture).
  5. When permission has been granted to record the lecture, the lecturer should tell all the students that permission has been granted.
  6. The method of recording should be discrete and not intrusive.
  7. The Standing Committee regards making lecture PowerPoint slides available through Canvas (with or without audio) as good practice
  8. Permission to record may not be given, at the lecturer’s discretion, if the recording is available by podcast or other method on the web.
  9. Students cannot record on behalf of others, except in the case of properly designated note-takers for disabled students.


The Equality and Diversity Unit promotes equality, values diversity and supports departments/faculties and colleges in maintaining a working, learning and social environment in which the rights and dignity of all members of the university community are respected. It aims to ensure that no student will be treated less favourably on the grounds of age, disability, gender, gender reassignment, marriage and civil partnership, pregnancy and maternity, race, religion and/or belief, and sexual orientation. For more information on the networks and activities the Unit supports, visit: include:

  • LGBT Staff Network (staff and graduate students)
  • Race Equality Network (staff and students)
  • Oxford Women’s Network (staff and students)
  • LGBT History Month
  • Black History Month

The Equality and Diversity Unit supports a network of over 300 harassment advisors in departments/faculties and colleges and a central Harassment Advisory Service. For more information on the University’s Harassment and Bullying policy and the support available for students visit:

The Disability Advisory Service (DAS) can provide information, advice and guidance on the way in which a particular disability may impact on a your student experience at the University and assist with organising disability-related study support. For more information visit:

The Counselling Service is here to help you address personal or emotional problems thatget in the way of having a good experience at Oxford and realising your full academic and personal potential. They offer a free and confidential service. For more information visit:

A range of services led by students are available to help provide support to other students, peer support, OUSU Student Advice Service and Nightline. For more information visit:


An Undergraduate Representative (elected by ballot at the end of each Trinity Term) attends meetings of the Standing Committee for Archaeology and Anthropology, the School of Archaeology Board and the Committee for the School of Archaeology.

The Undergraduate Representative convenes and chairs the Student Liaison Meetings, scheduled once a term, which provides an informal setting for discussion of a wide range of topics. The Undergraduate Administrator is invited to attend or is informed of what is discussed. Concerns raised are discussed at meetings of the Standing Committee and responses then normally considered under reserved business so that the Chairman of the Committee can reply in writing.

Feedback is an important aspect of ongoing course development. Feedback is a important aspect of ongoing course development. Students will be given the opportunity to respond and provide feedback to the lecture courses they receive. It is hoped to move this to an online format this year, however a sample questionnaire is provided on the following page by way of example. Responses are anonymous and comments are circulated to members of the Standing Committee/Course co-ordinators.


The procedures adopted by the Proctors in relation to complaints and academic appeals are described on the Proctors’ webpage:, the Student Handbook ( and the relevant Council regulations (

Students should also be aware that the University has procedures in place for hearing and acting on complaints of any sort and all students are referred to the Proctors' and Assessor's handbook Essential Information for Students for advice in these matters.

Many sources of advice are available within colleges, within faculties/departments and from bodies like the Student Advice Service provided by OUSU or the Counselling Service. Oxford Nightline, a confidential listening and information service run for students by students, is open 8pm until 8am from Noughth to Ninth Week each term. Students can phone (2)70270 or visit at 16 Wellington Square.

The Standing Committee, Course Co-ordinators and College Tutors do their best to ensure that the organisation and teaching of the course are carried out in an efficient, friendly and productive way, but all are aware that problems can occur and that there are a number of ways in which dissatisfactions can arise. General areas of concern about provision affecting students as a whole should be raised via the Undergraduate Representative on the committees that he/she attends.

If your concern or complaint relates to teaching or other provision made by the Schools of Archaeology or Anthropology (i.e. lectures/practical classes/seminars), then you should raise it with your College Tutor or the course co-ordinator. If your concern or complaint relates to teaching arranged by your College (i.e. tutorials), then you should raise it with your College Tutor. The Standing Committee cannot intervene in the arrangement or conduct of College-based teaching.

If the problem is with the College Tutor/Director of Studies, you should first turn to authorities within the college. In every college it is the concern of the Senior Tutor that subjects are well looked after, and if you believe that not to be the case with Archaeology and Anthropology in your college it is important that the Senior Tutor in the college be made aware of that. If the Senior Tutor is unable or unwilling to help then it may help to turn to the Chairman or Secretary of the Standing Committee for Archaeology and Anthropology; they will certainly be able to advise you on how reasonable/unreasonable your complaint is, and they may be able to intervene, although once again it is important to remember that the Standing Committee has no status within colleges.

In matters of harassment a special procedure applies. The University regards harassment as unacceptable. Harassment is defined as unwarranted behaviour which disrupts your work, reduces your quality of life or creates an offensive working or social environment; it includes bullying, verbal or physical abuse, unwelcome sexual advances or other hostile acts or expressions relating to your sex, sexual orientation, religion. Harassment is a University Offence for which penalties range from reprimand to expulsion. Colleges have and advertise the existence of harassment advisers and the Standing Committee also appoints advisers (currently Professor C. Gosden, Institute of Archaeology, tel. (2)88012). The University has also created an Advisory Panel of Senior Members appointed by the Proctors. This panel is responsible for supporting, coordinating and monitoring the effectiveness of the University's arrangements for dealing with harassment, but you may approach also members of this panel directly on (2)70760, a number specially designated for this purpose.

Archaeology and anthropology open a wide range of careers to graduates. It is anticipated that some will go on to do further study and research in one or other of the disciplines, to become the professional archaeologists and anthropologists of the future. There are increasing opportunities both in the public and private sectors in heritage management, museum curation and education, regional archaeological services, development work both in Europe and overseas, and in the media, as well as in areas such as advertising, marketing and community relations.

The University Careers Service ( ) is open to all students from the beginning of your study. The service is useful for identifying work experience or vacation jobs, and whether you have a clear idea of future career possibilities or not it is worth familiarizing yourself with the wide range of advice and events on offer.

As both Oxford and our university have such a rich cultural life, there are many varied opportunities to build experience, including exclusive opportunities for our BA Archaeology and Anthropology students. For example

  • As a student at Oxford you can apply to one of five internship programmes which provide research and professional work experience placements exclusively to Oxford students, with adjunct funding and support.
  • Apply to the internships at the Ashmolean Museum (offered exclusively to students taking the BA in Arch & Anth)
  • Apply to the internships at the School of Archaeology Archives which tell the story of archaeology from the late 19th century onwards through the books, maps, plans, notes, pictures, photographs, drawings, letters, and paraphernalia of archaeologists.
  • Join a community project. Start by exploring
  • Interested in making documentaries? Explore the Oxford Broadcasting Association to work on student films
  • Interested    in    working    in    museums    or    galleries?    Sign    up    for   volunteering at
  • Get involved with Oxford Preservation Trust projects locally.
  • Confident at IT skills such as blogging and website design? Then why not think about creating a heritage-style 'audio guide' for visitors to your college or a record of street art in Oxford? Don't know how to build a website or an app? Just ask and sign in with your Single Sign-on to access hundreds of 'how-to', bite-size video tutorials.
  • Become a non-accredited member (student/affiliate) of the CIfA - Chartered Institute for Archaeologists
  • Volunteer or apply to be an intern at the Royal Anthropological Institute


Archaeology and anthropology open up a wide range of careers to graduates as a result of its intellectual breadth and honing of analytical, presentational, and argumentative skills. Some will go on to do further study and research in one or other of the disciplines, to become the professional archaeologists and anthropologists of the future. There are also increasing opportunities both in the public and private sectors in heritage management, museum curation and education, regional archaeological services, development work, and in the media, as well as in areas such as advertising, marketing and community relations. Additionally, past students have entered such diverse careers as the civil service, teaching, the law (after taking a suitable conversion course), the military, medicine (after further study), and banking, among many others.

The University Careers Service ( ) is open to all students from the beginning of your study. The service is useful for identifying work experience or vacation jobs, and whether you have a clear idea of future career possibilities or not it is worth familiarizing yourself with the wide range of advice and events on offer.

As both Oxford and our university have such a rich cultural life, there are many varied opportunities to build experience, including exclusive opportunities for our BA Archaeology and Anthropology students. For example

  • As a student at Oxford you can apply to one of five internship programmes which provide research and professional work experience placements exclusively to Oxford students, with adjunct funding and support.
  • Apply to the internships at the Ashmolean Museum (offered exclusively to students taking the BA in Arch & Anth)
  • Apply  to  the  internships  at  the School  of  Archaeology  Archives which tell   the story of archaeology from the late 19th century onwards through the books, maps, plans, notes, pictures, photographs, drawings, letters, and paraphernalia of archaeologists.
  • Join a community project. Start by exploring
  • Interested in making documentaries? Explore the Oxford Broadcasting Association to work on student films
  • Interested    in    working    in    museums    or    galleries?    Sign    up    for    volunteering at
  • Get involved with Oxford Preservation Trust projects locally.
  • Confident at IT skills such as blogging and website design? Then why not think about creating a heritage-style 'audio guide' for visitors to your college or a record of street art in Oxford? Don't know how to build a website or an app? Just ask and sign in with your Single Sign-on to access hundreds of 'how-to', bite-size video tutorials.
  • Become a non-accredited member (student/affiliate) of the CIfA - Chartered Institute for Archaeologists
  • Volunteer or apply to be an intern at the Royal Anthropological Institute